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Antiholin (Protein rI)

 ANTIH_BPT4              Reviewed;          97 AA.
P13304;
01-JAN-1990, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
01-JAN-1990, sequence version 1.
22-NOV-2017, entry version 71.
RecName: Full=Antiholin {ECO:0000255|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04105};
AltName: Full=Protein rI;
Name=rI; Synonyms=58.6, rIA, tk.-2;
Enterobacteria phage T4 (Bacteriophage T4).
Viruses; dsDNA viruses, no RNA stage; Caudovirales; Myoviridae;
Tevenvirinae; T4virus.
NCBI_TaxID=10665;
NCBI_TaxID=562; Escherichia coli.
[1]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
PubMed=3024113; DOI=10.1093/nar/14.21.8637;
Valerie K., Stevens J., Lynch M., Henderson E.E., de Riel J.K.;
"Nucleotide sequence and analysis of the 58.3 to 65.5-kb early region
of bacteriophage T4.";
Nucleic Acids Res. 14:8637-8654(1986).
[2]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
Mzhavia N., Marusich E., Djavakhishvili T., Neitzel J., Peterson S.,
Awaya M., Eidermiller J., Canada D., Tracy J., Gailbreath K.,
Paddison P., Anderson B., Stidham T., Blattner F., Kutter E.M.;
"The 10.7 kb 'nonessential' region of bacteriophage T4 between the
genes tk and nrdC: twenty new t4 genes, generally conserved among T-
even phages.";
Submitted (NOV-1996) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases.
[3]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
PubMed=12626685; DOI=10.1128/MMBR.67.1.86-156.2003;
Miller E.S., Kutter E., Mosig G., Arisaka F., Kunisawa T., Ruger W.;
"Bacteriophage T4 genome.";
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 67:86-156(2003).
[4]
FUNCTION.
PubMed=9560373;
Paddison P., Abedon S.T., Dressman H.K., Gailbreath K., Tracy J.,
Mosser E., Neitzel J., Guttman B., Kutter E.;
"The roles of the bacteriophage T4 r genes in lysis inhibition and
fine-structure genetics: a new perspective.";
Genetics 148:1539-1550(1998).
[5]
INTERACTION WITH HOLIN, TOPOLOGY, AND SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
PubMed=16166524; DOI=10.1128/JB.187.19.6631-6640.2005;
Tran T.A., Struck D.K., Young R.;
"Periplasmic domains define holin-antiholin interactions in t4 lysis
inhibition.";
J. Bacteriol. 187:6631-6640(2005).
[6]
FUNCTION.
PubMed=17693511; DOI=10.1128/JB.00854-07;
Tran T.A., Struck D.K., Young R.;
"The T4 RI antiholin has an N-terminal signal anchor release domain
that targets it for degradation by DegP.";
J. Bacteriol. 189:7618-7625(2007).
[7]
FUNCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF CYS-69 AND CYS-75, DISULFIDE BOND, TOPOLOGY,
AND DOMAIN.
PubMed=22389108; DOI=10.1002/pro.2042;
Moussa S.H., Kuznetsov V., Tran T.A., Sacchettini J.C., Young R.;
"Protein determinants of phage T4 lysis inhibition.";
Protein Sci. 21:571-582(2012).
-!- FUNCTION: Involved in lysis inhibition. Interacts with and
inhibits the holin thereby delaying the host cell lysis timing.
Lysis inhibition is imposed when a cell infected by a T4-like
virus is superinfected by new incoming viruses. This is probably
due to the capsid content of the new phage being released in the
periplasm because of blockage of entry due to superinfection
exclusion. These periplasmically released viral proteins must
somehow activate the periplasmic antiholin, which in turn will
block the holin multimerization. {ECO:0000255|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04105,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:17693511, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22389108,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:9560373}.
-!- SUBUNIT: Interacts (via C-terminus) with holin (via C-terminus);
this interaction blocks the holin homomultimerization and delays
the host cell lysis. {ECO:0000255|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04105,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:16166524}.
-!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Host cell inner membrane {ECO:0000255|HAMAP-
Rule:MF_04105, ECO:0000305|PubMed:16166524}; Single-pass type II
membrane protein {ECO:0000255|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04105,
ECO:0000305|PubMed:16166524}.
-!- DOMAIN: The transmembrane signal-anchor domain can escape
spontaneously from the cell inner membrane. It is called SAR for
signal-anchor-release for that reason and explains why the
antiholin is an extremly instable protein. Superinfection might
stabilize it so that it can inhibit holin multimerization and
delay lysis. {ECO:0000255|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04105,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:22389108}.
-!- PTM: Disulfide bond is required for functionality.
{ECO:0000255|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04105, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22389108}.
-!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the T4likevirus antiholin family.
{ECO:0000255|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04105}.
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EMBL; X04567; CAA28236.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
EMBL; U76612; AAB26962.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
EMBL; AF158101; AAD42646.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
RefSeq; NP_049717.1; NC_000866.4.
GeneID; 1258591; -.
KEGG; vg:1258591; -.
OrthoDB; VOG090001EV; -.
Proteomes; UP000009087; Genome.
GO; GO:0020002; C:host cell plasma membrane; IDA:CACAO.
GO; GO:0016021; C:integral component of membrane; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0019835; P:cytolysis; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:1901218; P:negative regulation of holin activity; IMP:CACAO.
HAMAP; MF_04105; ANTIH_T4; 1.
InterPro; IPR034696; RI_T4.
1: Evidence at protein level;
Complete proteome; Cytolysis; Disulfide bond;
Host cell inner membrane; Host cell lysis by virus;
Host cell membrane; Host membrane; Membrane; Reference proteome;
Signal-anchor; Transmembrane; Transmembrane helix;
Viral release from host cell.
CHAIN 1 97 Antiholin.
/FTId=PRO_0000003346.
TRANSMEM 1 24 Helical; Signal-anchor for type II
membrane protein. {ECO:0000255|HAMAP-
Rule:MF_04105,
ECO:0000305|PubMed:16166524}.
TOPO_DOM 25 97 Periplasmic. {ECO:0000255|HAMAP-
Rule:MF_04105,
ECO:0000305|PubMed:16166524,
ECO:0000305|PubMed:22389108}.
DISULFID 69 75 {ECO:0000255|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04105,
ECO:0000305|PubMed:22389108}.
MUTAGEN 69 69 C->S: Complete loss of lysis.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:22389108}.
MUTAGEN 75 75 C->S: Complete loss of lysis.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:22389108}.
SEQUENCE 97 AA; 11125 MW; EA0EBE97B91265D8 CRC64;
MALKATALFA MLGLSFVLSP SIEANVDPHF DKFMESGIRH VYMLFENKSV ESSEQFYSFM
RTTYKNDPCS SDFECIERGA EMAQSYARIM NIKLETE


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