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Bifunctional lycopene cyclase/phytoene synthase (Protein albino-2) [Includes: Lycopene beta-cyclase (EC 5.5.1.19) (Carotene cyclase) (Lycopene cyclase); Phytoene synthase (EC 2.5.1.32)]

 LCPS_NEUCR              Reviewed;         602 AA.
P37295; Q7RVN3;
01-OCT-1994, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
01-OCT-1994, sequence version 1.
23-MAY-2018, entry version 112.
RecName: Full=Bifunctional lycopene cyclase/phytoene synthase;
AltName: Full=Protein albino-2;
Includes:
RecName: Full=Lycopene beta-cyclase;
EC=5.5.1.19;
AltName: Full=Carotene cyclase;
AltName: Full=Lycopene cyclase;
Includes:
RecName: Full=Phytoene synthase;
EC=2.5.1.32;
Name=al-2; ORFNames=B22I21.230, NCU00585;
Neurospora crassa (strain ATCC 24698 / 74-OR23-1A / CBS 708.71 / DSM
1257 / FGSC 987).
Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina;
Sordariomycetes; Sordariomycetidae; Sordariales; Sordariaceae;
Neurospora.
NCBI_TaxID=367110;
[1]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
STRAIN=ATCC 24698 / 74-OR23-1A / CBS 708.71 / DSM 1257 / FGSC 987;
PubMed=8163509;
Schmidhauser T.J., Lauter F.-R., Schumacher M., Zhou W., Russo V.E.A.,
Yanofsky C.;
"Characterization of al-2, the phytoene synthase gene of Neurospora
crassa. Cloning, sequence analysis, and photoregulation.";
J. Biol. Chem. 269:12060-12066(1994).
[2]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
STRAIN=ATCC 24698 / 74-OR23-1A / CBS 708.71 / DSM 1257 / FGSC 987;
PubMed=12655011; DOI=10.1093/nar/gkg293;
Mannhaupt G., Montrone C., Haase D., Mewes H.-W., Aign V.,
Hoheisel J.D., Fartmann B., Nyakatura G., Kempken F., Maier J.,
Schulte U.;
"What's in the genome of a filamentous fungus? Analysis of the
Neurospora genome sequence.";
Nucleic Acids Res. 31:1944-1954(2003).
[3]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
STRAIN=ATCC 24698 / 74-OR23-1A / CBS 708.71 / DSM 1257 / FGSC 987;
PubMed=12712197; DOI=10.1038/nature01554;
Galagan J.E., Calvo S.E., Borkovich K.A., Selker E.U., Read N.D.,
Jaffe D.B., FitzHugh W., Ma L.-J., Smirnov S., Purcell S., Rehman B.,
Elkins T., Engels R., Wang S., Nielsen C.B., Butler J., Endrizzi M.,
Qui D., Ianakiev P., Bell-Pedersen D., Nelson M.A.,
Werner-Washburne M., Selitrennikoff C.P., Kinsey J.A., Braun E.L.,
Zelter A., Schulte U., Kothe G.O., Jedd G., Mewes H.-W., Staben C.,
Marcotte E., Greenberg D., Roy A., Foley K., Naylor J.,
Stange-Thomann N., Barrett R., Gnerre S., Kamal M., Kamvysselis M.,
Mauceli E.W., Bielke C., Rudd S., Frishman D., Krystofova S.,
Rasmussen C., Metzenberg R.L., Perkins D.D., Kroken S., Cogoni C.,
Macino G., Catcheside D.E.A., Li W., Pratt R.J., Osmani S.A.,
DeSouza C.P.C., Glass N.L., Orbach M.J., Berglund J.A., Voelker R.,
Yarden O., Plamann M., Seiler S., Dunlap J.C., Radford A., Aramayo R.,
Natvig D.O., Alex L.A., Mannhaupt G., Ebbole D.J., Freitag M.,
Paulsen I., Sachs M.S., Lander E.S., Nusbaum C., Birren B.W.;
"The genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa.";
Nature 422:859-868(2003).
[4]
FUNCTION, AND MUTAGENESIS OF TRP-189 AND LYS-208.
STRAIN=ATCC 24698 / 74-OR23-1A / CBS 708.71 / DSM 1257 / FGSC 987;
PubMed=11862485; DOI=10.1007/s00438-001-0626-5;
Arrach N., Schmidhauser T.J., Avalos J.;
"Mutants of the carotene cyclase domain of al-2 from Neurospora
crassa.";
Mol. Genet. Genomics 266:914-921(2002).
[5]
FUNCTION.
PubMed=16928467; DOI=10.1016/j.bbalip.2006.06.002;
Sandmann G., Zhu C., Krubasik P., Fraser P.D.;
"The biotechnological potential of the al-2 gene from Neurospora
crassa for the production of monocyclic keto hydroxy carotenoids.";
Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1761:1085-1092(2006).
-!- FUNCTION: Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the reactions from
geranylgeranyl diphosphate to phytoene (phytoene synthase) and
from lycopene to beta-carotene via the intermediate gamma-carotene
and from 3,4-didehydrolycopene to torulene (lycopene cyclase).
Torulene is further processed to the acidic carotenoid
neurosporaxanthin. The cyclase preferentially catalyzes single
cyclizations at only one end of the substrate to produce
monocyclic carotenoids. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11862485,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:16928467}.
-!- CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: Carotenoid psi-end group = carotenoid beta-end
group.
-!- CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: 2 geranylgeranyl diphosphate = 15-cis-phytoene
+ 2 diphosphate.
-!- PATHWAY: Carotenoid biosynthesis; beta-carotene biosynthesis.
-!- PATHWAY: Carotenoid biosynthesis; phytoene biosynthesis; all-
trans-phytoene from geranylgeranyl diphosphate: step 1/1.
-!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Membrane {ECO:0000305}; Multi-pass membrane
protein {ECO:0000305}.
-!- INDUCTION: By blue light.
-!- SIMILARITY: In the N-terminal section; belongs to the lycopene
beta-cyclase family. {ECO:0000305}.
-!- SIMILARITY: In the C-terminal section; belongs to the
phytoene/squalene synthase family. {ECO:0000305}.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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EMBL; L27652; AAA19428.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
EMBL; BX842641; CAE76609.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
EMBL; CM002236; EAA36489.3; -; Genomic_DNA.
PIR; A53583; A53583.
RefSeq; XP_965725.3; XM_960632.3.
ProteinModelPortal; P37295; -.
PRIDE; P37295; -.
EnsemblFungi; EAA36489; EAA36489; NCU00585.
GeneID; 3881954; -.
KEGG; ncr:NCU00585; -.
EuPathDB; FungiDB:NCU00585; -.
InParanoid; P37295; -.
KO; K17841; -.
OrthoDB; EOG092C1GQ8; -.
BioCyc; MetaCyc:MONOMER-16129; -.
UniPathway; UPA00799; UER00773.
UniPathway; UPA00802; -.
Proteomes; UP000001805; Chromosome 1, Linkage Group I.
GO; GO:0016021; C:integral component of membrane; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0004310; F:farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase activity; IEA:InterPro.
GO; GO:0016767; F:geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase activity; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0016872; F:intramolecular lyase activity; IEA:InterPro.
GO; GO:0045436; F:lycopene beta cyclase activity; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0046905; F:phytoene synthase activity; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0051996; F:squalene synthase activity; IEA:InterPro.
GO; GO:0016120; P:carotene biosynthetic process; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0016117; P:carotenoid biosynthetic process; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0006696; P:ergosterol biosynthetic process; IEA:InterPro.
CDD; cd00683; Trans_IPPS_HH; 1.
Gene3D; 1.10.600.10; -; 1.
InterPro; IPR008949; Isoprenoid_synthase_dom_sf.
InterPro; IPR017825; Lycopene_cyclase_dom.
InterPro; IPR002060; Squ/phyt_synthse.
InterPro; IPR019845; Squalene/phytoene_synthase_CS.
InterPro; IPR033904; Trans_IPPS_HH.
Pfam; PF00494; SQS_PSY; 1.
SUPFAM; SSF48576; SSF48576; 1.
TIGRFAMs; TIGR03462; CarR_dom_SF; 2.
PROSITE; PS01044; SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_1; 1.
PROSITE; PS01045; SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_2; 1.
1: Evidence at protein level;
Carotenoid biosynthesis; Complete proteome; Isomerase; Membrane;
Multifunctional enzyme; Reference proteome; Transferase;
Transmembrane; Transmembrane helix.
CHAIN 1 602 Bifunctional lycopene cyclase/phytoene
synthase.
/FTId=PRO_0000067440.
TRANSMEM 6 26 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
TRANSMEM 30 50 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
TRANSMEM 76 96 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
TRANSMEM 118 138 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
TRANSMEM 146 166 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
TRANSMEM 168 188 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
TRANSMEM 230 250 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
REGION 1 241 Lycopene beta-cyclase.
REGION 248 602 Phytoene synthase.
MUTAGEN 189 189 W->R: In JA26; Abolishes lycopene cyclase
activity and accumulates a polar
precursor carotenoid of
neurosporaxanthin.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:11862485}.
MUTAGEN 208 208 K->E: In JA28; Abolishes lycopene cyclase
activity and accumulates a polar
precursor carotenoid of
neurosporaxanthin.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:11862485}.
SEQUENCE 602 AA; 68928 MW; DDFFBD725007E5C2 CRC64;
MYDYAFVHLK FTVPAAVLLT AIAYPILNRI HLIQTGFLVV VAFTAALPWD AYLIKHKVWS
YPPEAIVGPR LLGIPFEELF FFVIQTYITA LVYILFNKPV LHALHLNNQQ NPPAWMRVVK
VTGQVVLVAL SVWGWNAAQV HQETSYLGLI LVWACPFLLA IWTLAGRFIL SLPWYATVLP
MFLPTFYLWA VDEFALHRGT WSIGSGTKLD FCLFGKLDIE EATFFLVTNM LIVGGMAAFD
QYLAVIYAFP TLFPKVNRYP TTHMLLQSRL INTSRYDLER IEGLREAVER LRLKSRSFYL
ANSLFSGRLR IDLILLYSFC RLADDLVDDA KSRREVLSWT AKLNHFLDLH YKDADATEDP
KKKAERIDAY IKTAFPPCAY QALHLLPTHI LPPKPLYDLI KGFEMDSQFT FHGTSDSTDL
QYPIADDKDL ENYAIYVAGT VGELCIALII YHCLPDMSDT QKRELETAAC RMGIALQYVN
IARDIVVDAR IGRVYLPTTW LKKEGLTHKM VLENPEGPEV IERMRRRLLE NAFELYGGAR
PEMQRIPSEA RGPMIGAVEN YMAIGRVLRE RKEGTVFVRM EGRATVPKRR RLSTLLRALY
EQ


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