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Bifunctional lycopene cyclase/phytoene synthase [Includes: Lycopene beta-cyclase (EC 5.5.1.19) (Lycopene cyclase); Phytoene synthase (EC 2.5.1.32)]

 LCPS_PHARH              Reviewed;         673 AA.
Q7Z859; Q7Z856; Q9UUQ0;
31-MAY-2011, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
01-OCT-2003, sequence version 1.
23-MAY-2018, entry version 65.
RecName: Full=Bifunctional lycopene cyclase/phytoene synthase;
Includes:
RecName: Full=Lycopene beta-cyclase;
EC=5.5.1.19;
AltName: Full=Lycopene cyclase;
Includes:
RecName: Full=Phytoene synthase;
EC=2.5.1.32;
Name=crtYB; Synonyms=pbs;
Phaffia rhodozyma (Yeast) (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous).
Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina;
Tremellomycetes; Cystofilobasidiales; Mrakiaceae; Xanthophyllomyces.
NCBI_TaxID=5421;
[1]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], AND FUNCTION.
STRAIN=CBS 6938 / CCRC 22365 / VKM Y-2793;
PubMed=10589832; DOI=10.1007/s004380051105;
Verdoes J.C., Krubasik K.P., Sandmann G., van Ooyen A.J.;
"Isolation and functional characterisation of a novel type of
carotenoid biosynthetic gene from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.";
Mol. Gen. Genet. 262:453-461(1999).
[2]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORMS 1 AND 2).
STRAIN=ATCC 24230 / UCD 67-385;
PubMed=12902257; DOI=10.1128/AEM.69.8.4676-4682.2003;
Lodato P., Alcaino J., Barahona S., Retamales P., Cifuentes V.;
"Alternative splicing of transcripts from crtI and crtYB genes of
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.";
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:4676-4682(2003).
[3]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], AND INDUCTION.
STRAIN=ATCC 24230 / UCD 67-385;
PubMed=18769767; DOI=10.4067/S0716-97602008000100011;
Niklitschek M., Alcaino J., Barahona S., Sepulveda D., Lozano C.,
Carmona M., Marcoleta A., Martinez C., Lodato P., Baeza M.,
Cifuentes V.;
"Genomic organization of the structural genes controlling the
astaxanthin biosynthesis pathway of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.";
Biol. Res. 41:93-108(2008).
[4]
FUNCTION.
PubMed=16928467; DOI=10.1016/j.bbalip.2006.06.002;
Sandmann G., Zhu C., Krubasik P., Fraser P.D.;
"The biotechnological potential of the al-2 gene from Neurospora
crassa for the production of monocyclic keto hydroxy carotenoids.";
Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1761:1085-1092(2006).
[5]
INDUCTION.
STRAIN=ATCC 24230 / UCD 67-385;
PubMed=17657357;
Lodato P., Alcaino J., Barahona S., Niklitschek M., Carmona M.,
Wozniak A., Baeza M., Jimenez A., Cifuentes V.;
"Expression of the carotenoid biosynthesis genes in Xanthophyllomyces
dendrorhous.";
Biol. Res. 40:73-84(2007).
-!- FUNCTION: Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the reactions from
geranylgeranyl diphosphate to phytoene (phytoene synthase) and
lycopene to beta-carotene via the intermediate gamma-carotene
(lycopene cyclase). The cyclase preferentially catalyzes the
symmetric cyclization of both ends of the substrate to produce
dicyclic carotenoids. Beta-carotene is further processed to the
acidic carotenoid astaxanthin. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10589832,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:16928467}.
-!- CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: Carotenoid psi-end group = carotenoid beta-end
group.
-!- CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: 2 geranylgeranyl diphosphate = 15-cis-phytoene
+ 2 diphosphate.
-!- PATHWAY: Carotenoid biosynthesis; beta-carotene biosynthesis.
-!- PATHWAY: Carotenoid biosynthesis; phytoene biosynthesis; all-
trans-phytoene from geranylgeranyl diphosphate: step 1/1.
-!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Membrane {ECO:0000305}; Multi-pass membrane
protein {ECO:0000305}.
-!- ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS:
Event=Alternative splicing; Named isoforms=2;
Name=1;
IsoId=Q7Z859-1; Sequence=Displayed;
Name=2;
IsoId=Q7Z859-2; Sequence=VSP_041283;
-!- INDUCTION: Down-regulated in stationary phase.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:17657357, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18769767}.
-!- SIMILARITY: In the N-terminal section; belongs to the lycopene
beta-cyclase family. {ECO:0000305}.
-!- SIMILARITY: In the C-terminal section; belongs to the
phytoene/squalene synthase family. {ECO:0000305}.
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EMBL; AJ133646; CAB51949.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
EMBL; AY174117; AAO73816.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; AY177204; AAO47570.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; DQ016503; AAY33923.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
ProteinModelPortal; Q7Z859; -.
PRIDE; Q7Z859; -.
BioCyc; MetaCyc:MONOMER-17247; -.
UniPathway; UPA00799; UER00773.
UniPathway; UPA00802; -.
GO; GO:0016021; C:integral component of membrane; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0004310; F:farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase activity; IEA:InterPro.
GO; GO:0016767; F:geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase activity; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0016872; F:intramolecular lyase activity; IEA:InterPro.
GO; GO:0045436; F:lycopene beta cyclase activity; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0046905; F:phytoene synthase activity; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0051996; F:squalene synthase activity; IEA:InterPro.
GO; GO:0016120; P:carotene biosynthetic process; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0016117; P:carotenoid biosynthetic process; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0006696; P:ergosterol biosynthetic process; IEA:InterPro.
CDD; cd00683; Trans_IPPS_HH; 1.
Gene3D; 1.10.600.10; -; 2.
InterPro; IPR008949; Isoprenoid_synthase_dom_sf.
InterPro; IPR017825; Lycopene_cyclase_dom.
InterPro; IPR002060; Squ/phyt_synthse.
InterPro; IPR019845; Squalene/phytoene_synthase_CS.
InterPro; IPR033904; Trans_IPPS_HH.
Pfam; PF00494; SQS_PSY; 1.
SUPFAM; SSF48576; SSF48576; 3.
TIGRFAMs; TIGR03462; CarR_dom_SF; 2.
PROSITE; PS01045; SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_2; 1.
2: Evidence at transcript level;
Alternative splicing; Carotenoid biosynthesis; Isomerase; Membrane;
Multifunctional enzyme; Transferase; Transmembrane;
Transmembrane helix.
CHAIN 1 673 Bifunctional lycopene cyclase/phytoene
synthase.
/FTId=PRO_0000409239.
TRANSMEM 9 29 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
TRANSMEM 36 56 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
TRANSMEM 81 101 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
TRANSMEM 117 137 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
TRANSMEM 157 177 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
TRANSMEM 187 207 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
TRANSMEM 226 246 Helical. {ECO:0000255}.
REGION 1 251 Lycopene beta-cyclase.
REGION 258 673 Phytoene synthase.
COMPBIAS 367 405 Pro-rich.
VAR_SEQ 1 46 MTALAYYQIHLIYTLPILGLLGLLTSPILTKFDIYKISILV
FIAFS -> MSPYLFFVLHTTHVCICV (in isoform
2). {ECO:0000303|PubMed:12902257}.
/FTId=VSP_041283.
VARIANT 307 307 E -> K (in strain: CBS 6938 / CCRC 22365
/ VKM Y-2793).
SEQUENCE 673 AA; 74736 MW; ECAB54AF256240A2 CRC64;
MTALAYYQIH LIYTLPILGL LGLLTSPILT KFDIYKISIL VFIAFSATTP WDSWIIRNGA
WTYPSAESGQ GVFGTFLDVP YEEYAFFVIQ TVITGLVYVL ATRHLLPSLA LPKTRSSALS
LALKALIPLP IIYLFTAHPS PSPDPLVTDH YFYMRALSLL ITPPTMLLAA LSGEYAFDWK
SGRAKSTIAA IMIPTVYLIW VDYVAVGQDS WSINDEKIVG WRLGGVLPIE EAMFFLLTNL
MIVLGLSACD HTQALYLLHG RTIYGNKKMP SSFPLITPPV LSLFFSSRPY SSQPKRDLEL
AVKLLEEKSR SFFVASAGFP SEVRERLVGL YAFCRVTDDL IDSPEVSSNP HATIDMVSDF
LTLLFGPPLH PSQPDKILSS PLLPPSHPSR PTGMYPLPPP PSLSPAELVQ FLTERVPVQY
HFAFRLLAKL QGLIPRYPLD ELLRGYTTDL IFPLSTEAVQ ARKTPIETTA DLLDYGLCVA
GSVAELLVYV SWASAPSQVP ATIEEREAVL VASREMGTAL QLVNIARDIK GDATEGRFYL
PLSFFGLRDE SKLAIPTDWT EPRPQDFDKL LSLSPSSTLP SSNASESFRF EWKTYSLPLV
AYAEDLAKHS YKGIDRLPTE VQAGMRAACA SYLLIGREIK VVWKGDVGER RTVAGWRRVR
KVLSVVMSGW EGQ


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