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Glucagon [Cleaved into: Glicentin-related polypeptide (GRPP); Glucagon; Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1); Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37) (GLP-1(7-37)); Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) (GLP-1(7-36)); Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2)]

 GLUC_CHICK              Reviewed;         206 AA.
P68259; P01277; Q91410;
21-JUL-1986, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
25-OCT-2004, sequence version 1.
05-DEC-2018, entry version 96.
RecName: Full=Glucagon;
Contains:
RecName: Full=Glicentin-related polypeptide;
Short=GRPP;
Contains:
RecName: Full=Glucagon;
Contains:
RecName: Full=Glucagon-like peptide 1;
Short=GLP-1;
Contains:
RecName: Full=Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37);
Short=GLP-1(7-37);
Contains:
RecName: Full=Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36);
Short=GLP-1(7-36);
Contains:
RecName: Full=Glucagon-like peptide 2;
Short=GLP-2;
Flags: Precursor;
Name=GCG;
Gallus gallus (Chicken).
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi;
Archelosauria; Archosauria; Dinosauria; Saurischia; Theropoda;
Coelurosauria; Aves; Neognathae; Galloanserae; Galliformes;
Phasianidae; Phasianinae; Gallus.
NCBI_TaxID=9031;
[1]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM PANCREATIC).
TISSUE=Pancreas;
PubMed=2338135; DOI=10.1016/0014-5793(90)80779-I;
Hasegawa S., Terazono K., Nata K., Takada T., Yamamoto H., Okamoto H.;
"Nucleotide sequence determination of chicken glucagon precursor cDNA.
Chicken preproglucagon does not contain glucagon-like peptide II.";
FEBS Lett. 264:117-120(1990).
[2]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM INTESTINAL).
TISSUE=Intestinal mucosa;
PubMed=7776976; DOI=10.1210/mend.9.3.7776976;
Irwin D.M., Wong J.;
"Trout and chicken proglucagon: alternative splicing generates mRNA
transcripts encoding glucagon-like peptide 2.";
Mol. Endocrinol. 9:267-277(1995).
[3]
PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 55-83.
PubMed=1194290;
Pollock H.G., Kimmel J.R.;
"Chicken glucagon. Isolation and amino acid sequence studies.";
J. Biol. Chem. 250:9377-9380(1975).
[4]
PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 55-83.
PubMed=2828209;
Huang J., Eng J., Yalow R.S.;
"Chicken glucagon: sequence and potency in receptor assay.";
Horm. Metab. Res. 19:542-544(1987).
-!- FUNCTION: Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and
homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis
and decreasing glycolysis.
-!- FUNCTION: GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent
insulin release.
-!- FUNCTION: GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates
villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased
crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis.
-!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Secreted.
-!- ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS:
Event=Alternative splicing; Named isoforms=2;
Name=Intestinal;
IsoId=P68259-1, P01277-1;
Sequence=Displayed;
Name=Pancreatic;
IsoId=P68259-2, P01277-2;
Sequence=VSP_001753, VSP_001754;
-!- INDUCTION: Produced in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans in
response to a drop in blood sugar concentration.
-!- PTM: Proglucagon is post-translationally processed in a tissue-
specific manner in pancreatic A cells and intestinal L cells. In
pancreatic A cells, the major bioactive hormone is glucagon
cleaved by PCSK2/PC2. In the intestinal L cells PCSK1/PC1
liberates GLP-1 and GLP-2. GLP-1 is further N-terminally truncated
by post-translational processing in the intestinal L cells
resulting in GLP-1(7-37) GLP-1-(7-36)amide (By similarity).
{ECO:0000250}.
-!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the glucagon family. {ECO:0000305}.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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EMBL; Y07539; CAA68827.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; S78477; AAB34506.1; -; mRNA.
PIR; I51301; I51301.
PIR; S09992; GCCH.
RefSeq; NP_001177094.1; NM_001190165.3. [P68259-1]
RefSeq; NP_990591.1; NM_205260.4. [P68259-2]
RefSeq; XP_015145124.1; XM_015289638.1.
RefSeq; XP_015145125.1; XM_015289639.1. [P68259-1]
RefSeq; XP_015145126.1; XM_015289640.1.
UniGene; Gga.10039; -.
UniGene; Gga.704; -.
ProteinModelPortal; P68259; -.
SMR; P68259; -.
STRING; 9031.ENSGALP00000018068; -.
PaxDb; P68259; -.
Ensembl; ENSGALT00000033134; ENSGALP00000032494; ENSGALG00000011104. [P68259-1]
Ensembl; ENSGALT00000083600; ENSGALP00000059361; ENSGALG00000011104. [P68259-1]
Ensembl; ENSGALT00000086027; ENSGALP00000060788; ENSGALG00000011104. [P68259-2]
GeneID; 396196; -.
KEGG; gga:396196; -.
CTD; 2641; -.
eggNOG; ENOG410IKZ8; Eukaryota.
eggNOG; ENOG4111VKC; LUCA.
GeneTree; ENSGT00390000005372; -.
HOGENOM; HOG000231876; -.
HOVERGEN; HBG003010; -.
InParanoid; P68259; -.
KO; K05259; -.
OMA; INWLLQT; -.
OrthoDB; EOG091G0PJK; -.
PhylomeDB; P68259; -.
TreeFam; TF332333; -.
Reactome; R-GGA-163359; Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation.
Reactome; R-GGA-381676; Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion.
Reactome; R-GGA-381771; Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1).
Reactome; R-GGA-416476; G alpha (q) signalling events.
Reactome; R-GGA-418555; G alpha (s) signalling events.
Reactome; R-GGA-420092; Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
Reactome; R-GGA-422085; Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.
PRO; PR:P68259; -.
Proteomes; UP000000539; Chromosome 7.
Bgee; ENSGALG00000011104; Expressed in 8 organ(s), highest expression level in testis.
ExpressionAtlas; P68259; baseline.
GO; GO:0005737; C:cytoplasm; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0005615; C:extracellular space; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0031769; F:glucagon receptor binding; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0005179; F:hormone activity; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0042802; F:identical protein binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0007189; P:adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0007188; P:adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0043066; P:negative regulation of apoptotic process; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0032099; P:negative regulation of appetite; IDA:AgBase.
GO; GO:1900118; P:negative regulation of execution phase of apoptosis; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0090280; P:positive regulation of calcium ion import; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0070374; P:positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0035948; P:positive regulation of gluconeogenesis by positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0051571; P:positive regulation of histone H3-K4 methylation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0035774; P:positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0033138; P:positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0010800; P:positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0032092; P:positive regulation of protein binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0045860; P:positive regulation of protein kinase activity; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0010737; P:protein kinase A signaling; IBA:GO_Central.
InterPro; IPR015550; Glucagon.
InterPro; IPR000532; Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP.
PANTHER; PTHR11418; PTHR11418; 1.
Pfam; PF00123; Hormone_2; 3.
PRINTS; PR00275; GLUCAGON.
SMART; SM00070; GLUCA; 3.
PROSITE; PS00260; GLUCAGON; 4.
1: Evidence at protein level;
Alternative splicing; Amidation; Cleavage on pair of basic residues;
Complete proteome; Direct protein sequencing; Hormone;
Reference proteome; Secreted; Signal.
SIGNAL 1 22
PEPTIDE 23 52 Glicentin-related polypeptide.
{ECO:0000250}.
/FTId=PRO_0000011325.
PEPTIDE 55 83 Glucagon.
/FTId=PRO_0000011326.
PROPEP 86 109 {ECO:0000250}.
/FTId=PRO_0000011327.
PEPTIDE 112 148 Glucagon-like peptide 1. {ECO:0000250}.
/FTId=PRO_0000011328.
PEPTIDE 118 148 Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37).
{ECO:0000250}.
/FTId=PRO_0000011329.
PEPTIDE 118 147 Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36).
{ECO:0000250}.
/FTId=PRO_0000011330.
PROPEP 151 163 {ECO:0000250}.
/FTId=PRO_0000011331.
PEPTIDE 166 198 Glucagon-like peptide 2. {ECO:0000250}.
/FTId=PRO_0000011332.
PROPEP 199 206 {ECO:0000250}.
/FTId=PRO_0000011333.
SITE 54 55 Cleavage; by PCSK2. {ECO:0000250}.
SITE 85 86 Cleavage; by PCSK1 and PCSK2.
{ECO:0000250}.
SITE 111 112 Cleavage; by PCSK1. {ECO:0000250}.
SITE 117 118 Cleavage; by PCSK1. {ECO:0000250}.
SITE 150 151 Cleavage; by PCSK1. {ECO:0000250}.
SITE 165 166 Cleavage; by PCSK1. {ECO:0000250}.
MOD_RES 147 147 Arginine amide. {ECO:0000250}.
VAR_SEQ 151 151 D -> E (in isoform Pancreatic).
{ECO:0000303|PubMed:2338135}.
/FTId=VSP_001753.
VAR_SEQ 152 206 Missing (in isoform Pancreatic).
{ECO:0000303|PubMed:2338135}.
/FTId=VSP_001754.
SEQUENCE 206 AA; 23876 MW; AB299E1B02FC6AA4 CRC64;
MKMKSIYFIA GLLLMIVQGS WQNPLQDTEE KSRSFKASQS EPLDESRQLN EVKRHSQGTF
TSDYSKYLDS RRAQDFVQWL MSTKRNGQQG QEDKENDKFP DQLSSNAISK RHSEFERHAE
GTYTSDITSY LEGQAAKEFI AWLVNGRGRR DFPEKALMAE EMGRRHADGT FTSDINKILD
DMAAKEFLKW LINTKVTQRD LLGEYQ


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