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Gonad-stimulating substance (Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide) [Cleaved into: Gonad-stimulating substance B chain; Gonad-stimulating substance A chain]

 GSS_PATPE               Reviewed;         116 AA.
C9K4X8;
13-APR-2016, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
24-NOV-2009, sequence version 1.
25-OCT-2017, entry version 33.
RecName: Full=Gonad-stimulating substance {ECO:0000303|PubMed:19470645};
AltName: Full=Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide {ECO:0000303|PubMed:26166482};
Contains:
RecName: Full=Gonad-stimulating substance B chain {ECO:0000303|PubMed:19470645};
Contains:
RecName: Full=Gonad-stimulating substance A chain {ECO:0000303|PubMed:19470645};
Flags: Precursor;
Name=GSS {ECO:0000312|EMBL:BAI44654.1};
Synonyms=RGP {ECO:0000312|EMBL:BAQ35469.1};
Patiria pectinifera (Starfish) (Asterina pectinifera).
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Echinodermata; Eleutherozoa; Asterozoa;
Asteroidea; Valvatacea; Valvatida; Asterinidae; Patiria.
NCBI_TaxID=7594 {ECO:0000312|EMBL:BAI44654.1};
[1] {ECO:0000312|EMBL:BAI44654.1}
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 30-48 AND 93-116,
FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, MASS SPECTROMETRY, AND SYNTHESIS.
TISSUE=Nerve {ECO:0000312|EMBL:BAI44654.1};
PubMed=19470645; DOI=10.1073/pnas.0900243106;
Mita M., Yoshikuni M., Ohno K., Shibata Y., Paul-Prasanth B.,
Pitchayawasin S., Isobe M., Nagahama Y.;
"A relaxin-like peptide purified from radial nerves induces oocyte
maturation and ovulation in the starfish, Asterina pectinifera.";
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106:9507-9512(2009).
[2] {ECO:0000312|EMBL:BAQ35469.1, ECO:0000312|EMBL:BAQ35470.1}
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA / MRNA], AND TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
TISSUE=Nerve {ECO:0000303|PubMed:26166482}, and
Testis {ECO:0000303|PubMed:26166482};
PubMed=26166482; DOI=10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.06.017;
Haraguchi S., Ikeda N., Abe M., Tsutsui K., Mita M.;
"Nucleotide sequence and expression of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating
peptide gene in starfish Asterina pectinifera.";
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 227:115-119(2016).
[3] {ECO:0000305}
FUNCTION.
PubMed=21295575; DOI=10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.01.014;
Mita M., Yamamoto K., Nakamura M., Nagahama Y.;
"Hormonal action of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) on
starfish ovaries in growing and fully grown states.";
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 172:85-89(2011).
[4] {ECO:0000305}
FUNCTION.
PubMed=21967225; DOI=10.2108/zsj.28.764;
Mita M., Yamamoto K., Nagahama Y.;
"Interaction of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating substance with ovarian
follicle cells of the starfish Asterina pectinifera.";
Zool. Sci. 28:764-769(2011).
[5] {ECO:0000305}
FUNCTION.
PubMed=22134181; DOI=10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.11.010;
Mita M., Yamamoto K., Nakamura M., Takeshige Y., Watanabe M.,
Nagahama Y.;
"Participation of Gs-proteins in the action of relaxin-like gonad-
stimulating substance (GSS) for 1-methyladenine production in starfish
ovarian follicle cells.";
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 176:432-437(2012).
[6] {ECO:0000305}
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
PubMed=23829221; DOI=10.2108/zsj.30.602;
Mita M.;
"Release of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating substance from starfish
radial nerves by lonomycin.";
Zool. Sci. 30:602-606(2013).
[7] {ECO:0000305}
FUNCTION.
PubMed=24929230; DOI=10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.06.003;
Mita M., Haraguchi S., Watanabe M., Takeshige Y., Yamamoto K.,
Tsutsui K.;
"Involvement of Galphas-proteins in the action of relaxin-like gonad-
stimulating substance on starfish ovarian follicle cells.";
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 205:80-87(2014).
-!- FUNCTION: Induces oocyte maturation and ovulation in vitro in
ovarian fragments and induces spawning behavior and gamete release
in vivo (PubMed:19470645). Probably mediates its effects by
binding to a G-protein coupled receptor located in follicle cell
membranes (PubMed:21295575, PubMed:21967225, PubMed:24929230).
Following receptor binding, stimulates GTP-dependent adenylyl
cyclase activity in follicle cell membranes of fully grown ovaries
at stage V but not in young ovaries at stage IV, leading to the
production of cAMP (PubMed:21967225, PubMed:22134181). This
stimulates the production of the maturation-inducing hormone, 1-
methyladenine, in stage V but not stage IV ovaries
(PubMed:19470645, PubMed:21295575, PubMed:22134181). The lack of
activity in stage IV ovaries may be due to the very low levels of
the G-protein alpha s subunit which is not expressed at high
levels in follicle cells until stage V (PubMed:24929230).
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:19470645, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21295575,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:21967225, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22134181,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:24929230}.
-!- SUBUNIT: Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two
disulfide bonds. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P01348}.
-!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Secreted {ECO:0000269|PubMed:23829221}.
-!- TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed at high levels in the radial nerves
(PubMed:19470645, PubMed:26166482). In the radial nerves, detected
in the peripheral area proximal to the tube feet but not at the
side of the hemal sinus (PubMed:19470645). Expressed at low levels
in cardiac stomach and pyloric caeca with trace amounts in the
ovary, testis and tube feet (PubMed:26166482).
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:19470645, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26166482}.
-!- MASS SPECTROMETRY: Mass=2236; Method=MALDI; Range=30-48;
Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:19470645};
-!- MASS SPECTROMETRY: Mass=2507; Method=MALDI; Range=93-116;
Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:19470645};
-!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the insulin family. {ECO:0000305}.
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EMBL; AB496611; BAI44654.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; LC027938; BAQ35469.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; LC027939; BAQ35470.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
DIP; DIP-58564N; -.
GO; GO:0005615; C:extracellular space; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0005179; F:hormone activity; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0045762; P:positive regulation of adenylate cyclase activity; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:1900195; P:positive regulation of oocyte maturation; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0060279; P:positive regulation of ovulation; IDA:UniProtKB.
Gene3D; 1.10.100.10; -; 1.
InterPro; IPR036438; Insulin-like_sf.
InterPro; IPR022353; Insulin_CS.
SUPFAM; SSF56994; SSF56994; 2.
PROSITE; PS00262; INSULIN; 1.
1: Evidence at protein level;
Cleavage on pair of basic residues; Direct protein sequencing;
Disulfide bond; Hormone; Secreted; Signal.
SIGNAL 1 29 {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19470645}.
PEPTIDE 30 48 Gonad-stimulating substance B chain.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:19470645}.
/FTId=PRO_0000436043.
PROPEP 51 90 Connecting peptide.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:19470645}.
/FTId=PRO_0000436044.
PEPTIDE 93 116 Gonad-stimulating substance A chain.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:19470645}.
/FTId=PRO_0000436045.
DISULFID 33 103 Interchain (between B and A chains).
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P01348}.
DISULFID 45 116 Interchain (between B and A chains).
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P01348}.
DISULFID 102 107 {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P01348}.
SEQUENCE 116 AA; 12871 MW; B244C89DEBCF4040 CRC64;
MTSNNRHLFQ ATCLVLLLLH AAFHGGALGE KYCDDDFHMA VFRTCAVSKR SQPGMSLSDV
LTMNRFRGHN IKRSIDSTLE DNAFFMSGLE KRSEYSGIAS YCCLHGCTPS ELSVVC


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