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High mobility group protein B1 (High mobility group protein 1) (HMG-1)

 HMGB1_CALJA             Reviewed;         215 AA.
20-MAY-2008, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
26-FEB-2008, sequence version 1.
05-DEC-2018, entry version 75.
RecName: Full=High mobility group protein B1;
AltName: Full=High mobility group protein 1;
Callithrix jacchus (White-tufted-ear marmoset).
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi;
Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini;
Platyrrhini; Cebidae; Callitrichinae; Callithrix; Callithrix.
Antonellis A., Benjamin B., Blakesley R.W., Bouffard G.G.,
Brinkley C., Brooks S., Chu G., Chub I., Coleman H., Fuksenko T.,
Gestole M., Gregory M., Guan X., Gupta J., Gurson N., Han E., Han J.,
Hansen N., Hargrove A., Hines-Harris K., Ho S.-L., Hu P., Hunter G.,
Hurle B., Idol J.R., Johnson T., Knight E., Kwong P., Lee-Lin S.-Q.,
Legaspi R., Madden M., Maduro Q.L., Maduro V.B., Margulies E.H.,
Masiello C., Maskeri B., McDowell J., Merkulov G., Montemayor C.,
Mullikin J.C., Park M., Prasad A., Ramsahoye C., Reddix-Dugue N.,
Riebow N., Schandler K., Schueler M.G., Sison C., Smith L.,
Stantripop S., Thomas J.W., Thomas P.J., Tsipouri V., Young A.,
Green E.D.;
"NISC comparative sequencing initiative.";
Submitted (JAN-2008) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases.
-!- FUNCTION: Multifunctional redox sensitive protein with various
roles in different cellular compartments. In the nucleus is one of
the major chromatin-associated non-histone proteins and acts as a
DNA chaperone involved in replication, transcription, chromatin
remodeling, V(D)J recombination, DNA repair and genome stability.
Proposed to be an universal biosensor for nucleic acids. Promotes
host inflammatory response to sterile and infectious signals and
is involved in the coordination and integration of innate and
adaptive immune responses. In the cytoplasm functions as sensor
and/or chaperone for immunogenic nucleic acids implicating the
activation of TLR9-mediated immune responses, and mediates
autophagy. Acts as danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP)
molecule that amplifies immune responses during tissue injury.
Released to the extracellular environment can bind DNA,
nucleosomes, IL-1 beta, CXCL12, AGER isoform 2/sRAGE,
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and
activates cells through engagement of multiple surface receptors.
In the extracellular compartment fully reduced HMGB1 (released by
necrosis) acts as a chemokine, disulfide HMGB1 (actively secreted)
as a cytokine, and sulfonyl HMGB1 (released from apoptotic cells)
promotes immunological tolerance. Has proangiogenic activity. May
be involved in platelet activation. Binds to phosphatidylserine
and phosphatidylethanolamide. Bound to RAGE mediates signaling for
neuronal outgrowth. May play a role in accumulation of expanded
polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429,
ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P10103, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63159}.
-!- FUNCTION: Nuclear functions are attributed to fully reduced HGMB1.
Associates with chromatin and binds DNA with a preference to non-
canonical DNA structures such as single-stranded DNA, DNA-
containing cruciforms or bent structures, supercoiled DNA and
ZDNA. Can bent DNA and enhance DNA flexibility by looping thus
providing a mechanism to promote activities on various gene
promoters by enhancing transcription factor binding and/or
bringing distant regulatory sequences into close proximity. May be
involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER), mismatch repair
(MMR) and base excision repair (BER) pathways, and double strand
break repair such as non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Involved
in V(D)J recombination by acting as a cofactor of the RAG complex:
acts by stimulating cleavage and RAG protein binding at the 23 bp
spacer of conserved recombination signal sequences (RSS). In vitro
can displace histone H1 from highly bent DNA. Can restructure the
canonical nucleosome leading to relaxation of structural
constraints for transcription factor-binding. Enhances binding of
sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) such as SREBF1
to their cognate DNA sequences and increases their transcriptional
activities. Facilitates binding of TP53 to DNA. May be involved in
mitochondrial quality control and autophagy in a transcription-
dependent fashion implicating HSPB1. Can modulate the activity of
the telomerase complex and may be involved in telomere
maintenance. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429,
ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P10103, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63158,
-!- FUNCTION: In the cytoplasm proposed to dissociate the BECN1:BCL2
complex via competitive interaction with BECN1 leading to
autophagy activation. Can protect BECN1 and ATG5 from calpain-
mediated cleavage and thus proposed to control their proautophagic
and proapoptotic functions and to regulate the extent and severity
of inflammation-associated cellular injury. In myeloid cells has a
protective role against endotoxemia and bacterial infection by
promoting autophagy. Involved in endosomal translocation and
activation of TLR9 in response to CpG-DNA in macrophages.
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63158}.
-!- FUNCTION: In the extracellular compartment (following either
active secretion or passive release) involved in regulation of the
inflammatory response. Fully reduced HGMB1 (which subsequently
gets oxidized after release) in association with CXCL12 mediates
the recruitment of inflammatory cells during the initial phase of
tissue injury; the CXCL12:HMGB1 complex triggers CXCR4
homodimerization. Induces the migration of monocyte-derived
immature dendritic cells and seems to regulate adhesive and
migratory functions of neutrophils implicating AGER/RAGE and
ITGAM. Can bind to various types of DNA and RNA including
microbial unmethylated CpG-DNA to enhance the innate immune
response to nucleic acids. Proposed to act in promiscuous DNA/RNA
sensing which cooperates with subsequent discriminative sensing by
specific pattern recognition receptors. Promotes extracellular
DNA-induced AIM2 inflammasome activation implicating AGER/RAGE.
Disulfide HMGB1 binds to transmembrane receptors, such as
AGER/RAGE, TLR2, TLR4 and probably TREM1, thus activating their
signal transduction pathways. Mediates the release of
cytokines/chemokines such as TNF, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CCL3,
CCL4 and CXCL10. Promotes secretion of interferon-gamma by
macrophage-stimulated natural killer (NK) cells in concert with
other cytokines like IL-2 or IL-12. TLR4 is proposed to be the
primary receptor promoting macrophage activation and signaling
through TLR4 seems to implicate LY96/MD-2. In bacterial LPS- or
LTA-mediated inflammatory responses binds to the endotoxins and
transfers them to CD14 for signaling to the respective TLR4:LY96
and TLR2 complexes. Contributes to tumor proliferation by
association with ACER/RAGE. Can bind to IL1-beta and signals
through the IL1R1:IL1RAP receptor complex. Binding to class A CpG
activates cytokine production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells
implicating TLR9, MYD88 and AGER/RAGE and can activate
autoreactive B cells. Via HMGB1-containing chromatin immune
complexes may also promote B cell responses to endogenous TLR9
ligands through a B-cell receptor (BCR)-dependent and ACER/RAGE-
independent mechanism. Inhibits phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by
macrophages; the function is dependent on poly-ADP-ribosylation
and involves binding to phosphatidylserine on the cell surface of
apoptotic cells. In adaptive immunity may be involved in enhancing
immunity through activation of effector T-cells and suppression of
regulatory T (TReg) cells. In contrast, without implicating
effector or regulatory T-cells, required for tumor infiltration
and activation of T-cells expressing the lymphotoxin LTA:LTB
heterotrimer thus promoting tumor malignant progression. Also
reported to limit proliferation of T-cells. Released
HMGB1:nucleosome complexes formed during apoptosis can signal
through TLR2 to induce cytokine production. Involved in induction
of immunological tolerance by apoptotic cells; its pro-
inflammatory activities when released by apoptotic cells are
neutralized by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent oxidation
specifically on Cys-106. During macrophage activation by activated
lymphocyte-derived self apoptotic DNA (ALD-DNA) promotes
recruitment of ALD-DNA to endosomes.
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P10103,
ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63158, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63159}.
-!- SUBUNIT: Interacts (fully reduced HMGB1) with CXCL12; probably in
a 1:2 ratio involving two molecules of CXCL12, each interacting
with one HMG box of HMGB1; inhibited by glycyrrhizin. Associates
with the TLR4:LY96 receptor complex. Component of the RAG complex
composed of core components RAG1 and RAG2, and associated
component HMGB1 or HMGB2. Interacts (in cytoplasm upon starvation)
with BECN1; inhibits the interaction of BECN1 and BCL2 leading to
promotion of autophagy. Interacts with KPNA1; involved in nuclear
import. Interacts with SREBF1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, PTPRZ1, APEX1,
FEN1, POLB, TERT. Interacts with IL1B, AGER, MSH2, XPA, XPC,
HNF1A, TP53. Interacts with CD24; the probable CD24:SIGLEC10
complex is proposed to inhibit HGMB1-mediated tissue damage immune
response. Interacts with THBD; prevents HGMB1 interaction with
ACER/RAGE and inhibits HGMB1 proinflammatory activity. Interacts
with HAVCR2; impairs HMGB1 binding to B-DNA and likely HMGB1-
mediated innate immume response. Interacts with XPO1; mediating
nuclear export. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429,
ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63158, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63159}.
-!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Nucleus {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429}.
Chromosome {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P10103,
ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63159}. Cytoplasm
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429}. Secreted
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63158}. Cell
membrane {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429,
ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63158, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63159};
Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429,
ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63158, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63159};
Extracellular side {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429,
ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63158, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63159}.
Endosome {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63158}. Endoplasmic reticulum-
Golgi intermediate compartment {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63158}.
Note=In basal state predominantly nuclear. Shuttles between the
cytoplasm and the nucleus. Translocates from the nucleus to the
cytoplasm upon autophagy stimulation. Release from macrophages in
the extracellular milieu requires the activation of NLRC4 or NLRP3
inflammasomes (By similarity). Passively released to the
extracellular milieu from necrotic cells by diffusion, involving
the fully reduced HGMB1 which subsequently gets oxidized. Also
released from apoptotic cells. Active secretion from a variety of
immune and non-immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes,
neutrophils, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and plasma
cells in response to various stimuli such as LPS and cytokines
involves a nonconventional secretory process via secretory
lysosomes. Found on the surface of activated platelets.
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63158}.
-!- DOMAIN: HMG box 2 mediates proinflammatory cytokine-stimulating
activity and binding to TLR4. However, not involved in mediating
immunogenic activity in the context of apoptosis-induced immune
tolerance. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429}.
-!- DOMAIN: The acidic C-terminal domain forms a flexible structure
which can reversibly interact intramolecularily with the HMG boxes
and modulate binding to DNA and other proteins.
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63159}.
-!- PTM: Phosphorylated at serine residues. Phosphorylation in both
NLS regions is required for cytoplasmic translocation followed by
secretion. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429}.
-!- PTM: Acetylated on multiple sites upon stimulation with LPS (By
similarity). Acetylation on lysine residues in the nuclear
localization signals (NLS 1 and NLS 2) leads to cytoplasmic
localization and subsequent secretion. Acetylation on Lys-3
results in preferential binding to DNA ends and impairs DNA
bending activity (By similarity). {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429,
ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P10103, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63159}.
-!- PTM: Reduction/oxidation of cysteine residues Cys-23, Cys-45 and
Cys-106 and a possible intramolecular disulfide bond involving
Cys-23 and Cys-45 give rise to different redox forms with specific
functional activities in various cellular compartments: 1- fully
reduced HMGB1 (HMGB1C23hC45hC106h), 2- disulfide HMGB1 (HMGB1C23-
C45C106h) and 3- sulfonyl HMGB1 (HMGB1C23soC45soC106so).
-!- PTM: Poly-ADP-ribosylated by PARP1 when secreted following
stimulation with LPS. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63158}.
-!- PTM: In vitro cleavage by CASP1 is liberating a HMG box 1-
containing peptide which may mediate immunogenic activity; the
peptide antagonizes apoptosis-induced immune tolerance. Can be
proteolytically cleaved by a thrombin:thrombomodulin complex;
reduces binding to heparin and proinflammatory activities (By
similarity). {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P09429,
-!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the HMGB family. {ECO:0000305}.
Copyrighted by the UniProt Consortium, see https://www.uniprot.org/terms
Distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) License
EMBL; DP000559; ABY74560.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
RefSeq; XP_008996337.1; XM_008998089.2.
ProteinModelPortal; B0CM99; -.
SMR; B0CM99; -.
STRING; 9483.ENSCJAP00000040230; -.
Ensembl; ENSCJAT00000040120; ENSCJAP00000053374; ENSCJAG00000020439.
GeneID; 100392312; -.
KEGG; cjc:100392312; -.
CTD; 3146; -.
eggNOG; KOG0381; Eukaryota.
eggNOG; COG5648; LUCA.
GeneTree; ENSGT00940000153257; -.
HOGENOM; HOG000197861; -.
HOVERGEN; HBG009000; -.
InParanoid; B0CM99; -.
KO; K10802; -.
OrthoDB; EOG091G0P81; -.
TreeFam; TF105371; -.
Proteomes; UP000008225; Unplaced.
GO; GO:0035868; C:alphav-beta3 integrin-HMGB1 complex; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0005623; C:cell; ISS:AgBase.
GO; GO:0009986; C:cell surface; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0000793; C:condensed chromosome; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0005793; C:endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment; IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
GO; GO:0005768; C:endosome; IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
GO; GO:0005615; C:extracellular space; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0005634; C:nucleus; IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
GO; GO:0017053; C:transcriptional repressor complex; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0000405; F:bubble DNA binding; ISS:AgBase.
GO; GO:0019958; F:C-X-C chemokine binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0003684; F:damaged DNA binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0008301; F:DNA binding, bending; ISS:AgBase.
GO; GO:0070182; F:DNA polymerase binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0003700; F:DNA-binding transcription factor activity; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0000400; F:four-way junction DNA binding; ISS:AgBase.
GO; GO:0005178; F:integrin binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0001530; F:lipopolysaccharide binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0016829; F:lyase activity; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0044378; F:non-sequence-specific DNA binding, bending; ISS:AgBase.
GO; GO:0001786; F:phosphatidylserine binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0070491; F:repressing transcription factor binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0097100; F:supercoiled DNA binding; ISS:AgBase.
GO; GO:0044212; F:transcription regulatory region DNA binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0002218; P:activation of innate immune response; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0043277; P:apoptotic cell clearance; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0006914; P:autophagy; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0006935; P:chemotaxis; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0006342; P:chromatin silencing; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0032392; P:DNA geometric change; ISS:AgBase.
GO; GO:0051103; P:DNA ligation involved in DNA repair; ISS:AgBase.
GO; GO:0002437; P:inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0045087; P:innate immune response; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:2000426; P:negative regulation of apoptotic cell clearance; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0043537; P:negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0043371; P:negative regulation of CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell differentiation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0032689; P:negative regulation of interferon-gamma production; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0017055; P:negative regulation of RNA polymerase II transcriptional preinitiation complex assembly; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0097350; P:neutrophil clearance; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0042104; P:positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0043536; P:positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0043280; P:positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0007204; P:positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:2001200; P:positive regulation of dendritic cell differentiation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0043388; P:positive regulation of DNA binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0070374; P:positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0050716; P:positive regulation of interleukin-1 secretion; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0032733; P:positive regulation of interleukin-10 production; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0032735; P:positive regulation of interleukin-12 production; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:2000778; P:positive regulation of interleukin-6 secretion; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0046330; P:positive regulation of JNK cascade; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0032425; P:positive regulation of mismatch repair; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0090026; P:positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0045944; P:positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:1905564; P:positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0010506; P:regulation of autophagy; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0032072; P:regulation of restriction endodeoxyribonuclease activity; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0002643; P:regulation of tolerance induction; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0035711; P:T-helper 1 cell activation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0045063; P:T-helper 1 cell differentiation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:1990774; P:tumor necrosis factor secretion; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0033151; P:V(D)J recombination; IEA:Ensembl.
Gene3D;; -; 2.
InterPro; IPR009071; HMG_box_dom.
InterPro; IPR036910; HMG_box_dom_sf.
InterPro; IPR017967; HMG_boxA_CS.
Pfam; PF00505; HMG_box; 1.
Pfam; PF09011; HMG_box_2; 1.
SMART; SM00398; HMG; 2.
SUPFAM; SSF47095; SSF47095; 2.
PROSITE; PS00353; HMG_BOX_1; 1.
PROSITE; PS50118; HMG_BOX_2; 2.
3: Inferred from homology;
Acetylation; Adaptive immunity; ADP-ribosylation; Autophagy;
Cell membrane; Chemotaxis; Chromosome; Complete proteome; Cytoplasm;
Disulfide bond; DNA damage; DNA recombination; DNA repair;
DNA-binding; Endosome; Immunity; Inflammatory response;
Innate immunity; Membrane; Nucleus; Oxidation; Phosphoprotein;
Reference proteome; Repeat; Secreted.
CHAIN 1 215 High mobility group protein B1.
DNA_BIND 9 79 HMG box 1. {ECO:0000255|PROSITE-
DNA_BIND 95 163 HMG box 2. {ECO:0000255|PROSITE-
REGION 1 97 Sufficient for interaction with HAVCR2.
REGION 1 10 Heparin-binding.
REGION 3 15 LPS binding (delipidated).
REGION 80 96 LPS binding (Lipid A).
REGION 89 108 Cytokine-stimulating activity.
REGION 150 183 Binding to AGER/RAGE.
MOTIF 27 43 Nuclear localization signal (NLS) 1.
MOTIF 178 184 Nuclear localization signal (NLS) 2.
COMPBIAS 186 215 Asp/Glu-rich (acidic).
SITE 10 11 Cleavage; by thrombin:thrombomodulin.
SITE 67 68 Cleavage; by CASP1.
MOD_RES 3 3 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 7 7 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 8 8 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 12 12 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 23 23 Cysteine sulfonic acid (-SO3H);
MOD_RES 28 28 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 29 29 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 30 30 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 35 35 Phosphoserine.
MOD_RES 43 43 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 45 45 Cysteine sulfonic acid (-SO3H);
MOD_RES 90 90 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 100 100 Phosphoserine.
MOD_RES 106 106 Cysteine sulfonic acid (-SO3H).
MOD_RES 127 127 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 128 128 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 141 141 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 172 172 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 173 173 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 177 177 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 180 180 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 181 181 ADP-ribosylserine.
MOD_RES 182 182 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 183 183 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 184 184 N6-acetyllysine.
MOD_RES 185 185 N6-acetyllysine.
DISULFID 23 45 In disulfide HMGB1; alternate.
SEQUENCE 215 AA; 24894 MW; 8A868CF277D417B5 CRC64;

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