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Midkine-A (MK-A) (XMK) (Pleiotrophic factor-alpha-1) (PTF-alpha-1) (X-PTF-alpha1)

 MKA_XENLA               Reviewed;         142 AA.
P48530; Q32N64; Q91547; Q91676;
01-FEB-1996, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
01-FEB-1996, sequence version 1.
28-MAR-2018, entry version 85.
RecName: Full=Midkine-A;
Short=MK-A;
Short=XMK;
AltName: Full=Pleiotrophic factor-alpha-1;
Short=PTF-alpha-1;
Short=X-PTF-alpha1;
Flags: Precursor;
Name=mdk-a;
Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog).
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi;
Amphibia; Batrachia; Anura; Pipoidea; Pipidae; Xenopodinae; Xenopus;
Xenopus.
NCBI_TaxID=8355;
[1]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
TISSUE=Embryonic head;
PubMed=8076838; DOI=10.1016/0378-1119(94)90312-3;
Fu C., Maminta-Smith L.D., Guo C., Deuel T.F.;
"Cloning and sequence of the Xenopus laevis homologue of the midkine
cDNA.";
Gene 146:311-312(1994).
[2]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], AND TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
TISSUE=Brain;
PubMed=7677748; DOI=10.1006/bbrc.1995.2305;
Tsujimura A., Yasojima K., Kuboki Y., Suzuki A., Ueno N., Shiokawa K.,
Hashimoto-Gotoh T.;
"Developmental and differential regulations in gene expression of
Xenopus pleiotrophic factors-alpha and -beta.";
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 214:432-439(1995).
[3]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], AND TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
TISSUE=Embryo;
PubMed=8537332;
Sekiguchi K., Yokota C., Asashima M., Kaname T., Fan Q.W.,
Muramatsu T., Kadomatsu K.;
"Restricted expression of Xenopus midkine gene during early
development.";
J. Biochem. 118:94-100(1995).
[4]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, AND
DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
TISSUE=Tail bud;
PubMed=9361288; DOI=10.1006/mcne.1997.0638;
Zhou H., Muramatsu T., Halfter W., Tsim K.W., Peng H.B.;
"A role of midkine in the development of the neuromuscular junction.";
Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 10:56-70(1997).
[5]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
TISSUE=Eye;
NIH - Xenopus Gene Collection (XGC) project;
Submitted (NOV-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases.
[6]
FUNCTION.
PubMed=9538212; DOI=10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a021942;
Yokota C., Takahashi S., Eisaki A., Asashima M., Akhter S.,
Muramatsu T., Kadomatsu K.;
"Midkine counteracts the activin signal in mesoderm induction and
promotes neural formation.";
J. Biochem. 123:339-346(1998).
[7]
FUNCTION.
PubMed=20308059; DOI=10.1074/jbc.M109.081232;
Svensson S.L., Pasupuleti M., Walse B., Malmsten M., Morgelin M.,
Sjogren C., Olin A.I., Collin M., Schmidtchen A., Palmer R.,
Egesten A.;
"Midkine and pleiotrophin have bactericidal properties: preserved
antibacterial activity in a family of heparin-binding growth factors
during evolution.";
J. Biol. Chem. 285:16105-16115(2010).
-!- FUNCTION: Inhibits mesoderm formation and promotes neural
formation during development. Plays a role in development of the
neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Has antibacterial activity against
both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:20308059, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9361288,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:9538212}.
-!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Secreted {ECO:0000250}.
-!- TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expression at the mid-gastrula stage begins in
the neural anlage, and becomes increasingly prominent in the
central nervous system and head mesenchyme during neurula stages.
Although the mRNA is localized to the developing central nervous
system (CNS), the protein is deposited at the neuromuscular
junction (NMJ). In the tailbud stage embryo, expressed in the head
and tail regions as well as in the CNS. In adults, expression is
highest in the brain, eye and bone, with lower expression in the
heart and lung. Not expressed in the ovary.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:7677748, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8537332,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:9361288}.
-!- DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Expressed zygotically from the mid-gastrula
stage. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:9361288}.
-!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the pleiotrophin family. {ECO:0000305}.
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EMBL; U06048; AAA57319.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; D42058; BAA07658.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; S80453; AAB35853.2; -; mRNA.
EMBL; BC108811; AAI08812.1; -; mRNA.
PIR; I51651; I51651.
PIR; JC4168; JC4168.
PIR; JC4272; JC4272.
RefSeq; NP_001081356.1; NM_001087887.1.
RefSeq; XP_018114941.1; XM_018259452.1.
RefSeq; XP_018114942.1; XM_018259453.1.
UniGene; Xl.897; -.
ProteinModelPortal; P48530; -.
SMR; P48530; -.
GeneID; 397791; -.
KEGG; xla:397791; -.
CTD; 397791; -.
Xenbase; XB-GENE-488506; mdk.
HOVERGEN; HBG008317; -.
KO; K06828; -.
GO; GO:0005576; C:extracellular region; IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
GO; GO:0008083; F:growth factor activity; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0043395; F:heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0008201; F:heparin binding; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0042742; P:defense response to bacterium; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0007399; P:nervous system development; IMP:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0007528; P:neuromuscular junction development; IMP:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0051781; P:positive regulation of cell division; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0009617; P:response to bacterium; IMP:UniProtKB.
Gene3D; 2.20.60.10; -; 1.
Gene3D; 2.30.90.10; -; 1.
InterPro; IPR000762; Midkine_heparin-bd_GF.
InterPro; IPR020090; PTN/MK_C_dom.
InterPro; IPR038130; PTN/MK_C_dom_sf.
InterPro; IPR020091; PTN/MK_diS_sf.
InterPro; IPR020089; PTN/MK_N_dom.
InterPro; IPR037122; PTN/MK_N_dom_sf.
InterPro; IPR020092; PTN_MK_heparin-bd_GF_CS.
PANTHER; PTHR13850; PTHR13850; 1.
Pfam; PF01091; PTN_MK_C; 1.
Pfam; PF05196; PTN_MK_N; 1.
PRINTS; PR00269; PTNMIDKINE.
ProDom; PD005592; PTN_MK_hepar_bd; 1.
SMART; SM00193; PTN; 1.
SUPFAM; SSF57288; SSF57288; 2.
PROSITE; PS00619; PTN_MK_1; 1.
PROSITE; PS00620; PTN_MK_2; 1.
2: Evidence at transcript level;
Antibiotic; Antimicrobial; Developmental protein; Disulfide bond;
Growth factor; Heparin-binding; Mitogen; Secreted; Signal.
SIGNAL 1 20 {ECO:0000255}.
CHAIN 21 142 Midkine-A.
/FTId=PRO_0000024666.
DISULFID 36 60 {ECO:0000250}.
DISULFID 44 69 {ECO:0000250}.
DISULFID 51 73 {ECO:0000250}.
DISULFID 83 115 {ECO:0000250}.
DISULFID 93 125 {ECO:0000250}.
CONFLICT 14 14 V -> I (in Ref. 3; AAB35853).
{ECO:0000305}.
CONFLICT 72 72 P -> L (in Ref. 1; AAA57319).
{ECO:0000305}.
SEQUENCE 142 AA; 15567 MW; B6036490298929B8 CRC64;
MELRAFCVIL LITVLAVSSQ AAKNKKEKGK KGASDCTEWT WGSCIPNSKD CGAGTREGTC
KEETRKLKCK IPCNWKKAFG ADCKYKFENW GECNATTGQK VRSGTLKKAL YNADCQQTVE
ATKPCSLKTK SKSKGKKGKG KE


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