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Protein Vpr (Viral protein R)

 A0A1S6Y8W7_9HIV1        Unreviewed;        96 AA.
A0A1S6Y8W7;
10-MAY-2017, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL.
10-MAY-2017, sequence version 1.
28-MAR-2018, entry version 9.
RecName: Full=Protein Vpr {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080, ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU364021, ECO:0000256|SAAS:SAAS00144507};
AltName: Full=R ORF protein {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080};
AltName: Full=Viral protein R {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080, ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU364021};
Name=vpr {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU364021, ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41242.1};
Human immunodeficiency virus 1.
Viruses; Retro-transcribing viruses; Retroviridae; Orthoretrovirinae;
Lentivirus; Primate lentivirus group.
NCBI_TaxID=11676 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41242.1};
NCBI_TaxID=9606; Homo sapiens (Human).
[1] {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41242.1}
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE.
STRAIN=DONOR2.3.A6.p2j16 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41568.1},
DONOR2.3.A6.p2j9 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41540.1},
DONOR2.3.A6.p6a10 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41582.1},
DONOR2.3.A6.p6a18 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41596.1},
DONOR2.3.A6.p6a20 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41561.1},
DONOR2.3.A6.p6b16 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41589.1},
DONOR2.3.A6.p6b17 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41575.1},
DONOR2.3.A6.p6b8 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41547.1},
DONOR2.A3.3.p4m13 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41304.1},
DONOR2.A3.3.p4m14 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41249.1},
DONOR2.A3.3.p4m15 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41262.1},
DONOR2.A3.3.p4m18 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41318.1},
DONOR2.A3.3.p4m9 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41297.1},
DONOR2.A3.3.p4n16 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41276.1},
DONOR2.A3.3.p4n20 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41269.1},
DONOR2.A3.3.p4n23 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41311.1},
DONOR2.A3.3.p4n24 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41290.1},
DONOR2.A3.3.p4n5 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41242.1},
DONOR2.A3.3.p4n6 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41256.1},
DONOR2.A4.3.p8a1 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41410.1},
DONOR2.A4.3.p8a11 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41403.1},
DONOR2.A4.3.p8a14 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41382.1},
DONOR2.A4.3.p8a19 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41375.1},
DONOR2.A4.3.p8a20 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41389.1},
DONOR2.A4.3.p8a23 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41396.1},
DONOR2.A4.3.p8a7 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41355.1},
DONOR2.A4.3.p8a8 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41368.1}, and
DONOR2.A4.3.p8b6 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AQX41362.1};
Bui J.K., Sobolewski M.D., Keele B.F., Spindler J., Musick A.,
Wiegand A., Luke B.T., Shao W., Hughes S.H., Coffin J.M.,
Kearney M.F., Mellors J.W.;
"Proviruses with Identical Sequences Comprise a Large Fraction of the
Replication-Competent HIV Reservoir.";
Submitted (FEB-2017) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases.
-!- FUNCTION: During virus entry, plays a role in the transport of the
viral pre-integration (PIC) complex to the host nucleus. This
function is crucial for viral infection of non-dividing
macrophages. May act directly at the nuclear pore complex, by
binding nucleoporins phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat regions.
{ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080, ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU364021}.
-!- FUNCTION: During virus replication, may deplete host UNG protein,
and incude G2-M cell cycle arrest. Acts by targeting specific host
proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome, through
association with the cellular CUL4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex by
direct interaction with host VPRPB/DCAF-1. Cell cycle arrest
reportedly occurs within hours of infection and is not blocked by
antiviral agents, suggesting that it is initiated by the VPR
carried into the virion. Additionally, VPR induces apoptosis in a
cell cycle dependent manner suggesting that these two effects are
mechanistically linked. Detected in the serum and cerebrospinal
fluid of AIDS patient, VPR may also induce cell death to bystander
cells. {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU364021}.
-!- SUBUNIT: Homooligomer, may form homodimer. Interacts with p6-gag
region of the Pr55 Gag precursor protein through a (Leu-X-X)4
motif near the C-terminus of the P6gag protein. Interacts with
host UNG. May interact with host RAD23A/HHR23A. Interacts with
host VPRBP/DCAF1, leading to hijack the CUL4A-RBX1-DDB1-
DCAF1/VPRBP complex, mediating ubiquitination of host proteins
such as TERT and ZGPAT and arrest of the cell cycle in G2 phase.
{ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080}.
-!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Host nucleus {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-
Rule:MF_04080, ECO:0000256|SAAS:SAAS00598690}. Virion
{ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080}. Host extracellular space
{ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080}. Note=Incorporation into virion
is dependent on p6 GAG sequences. Lacks a canonical nuclear
localization signal, thus import into nucleus may function
independently of the human importin pathway. Detected in high
quantity in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient.
{ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080}.
-!- PTM: Phosphorylated on several residues by host. These
phosphorylations regulate VPR activity for the nuclear import of
the HIV-1 pre-integration complex. {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-
Rule:MF_04080}.
-!- MISCELLANEOUS: HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M
(for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O).
The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group
M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon
and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these
viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N
is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian
persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes
(A to D, F to H, J and K). {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080}.
-!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the HIV-1 VPR protein family.
{ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080}.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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Distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs License
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
EMBL; KY612755; AQX41242.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612756; AQX41249.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612757; AQX41256.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612758; AQX41262.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612759; AQX41269.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612760; AQX41276.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612762; AQX41290.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612763; AQX41297.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612764; AQX41304.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612765; AQX41311.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612766; AQX41318.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612783; AQX41355.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612784; AQX41362.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612785; AQX41368.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612786; AQX41375.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612787; AQX41382.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612788; AQX41389.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612789; AQX41396.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612790; AQX41403.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612791; AQX41410.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612828; AQX41540.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612829; AQX41547.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612831; AQX41561.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612832; AQX41568.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612833; AQX41575.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612834; AQX41582.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612835; AQX41589.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
EMBL; KY612836; AQX41596.1; -; Genomic_RNA.
GO; GO:0043655; C:extracellular space of host; IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
GO; GO:0042025; C:host cell nucleus; IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
GO; GO:0019012; C:virion; IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
GO; GO:0007049; P:cell cycle; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
GO; GO:0019051; P:induction by virus of host apoptotic process; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
GO; GO:0006811; P:ion transport; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
GO; GO:0051260; P:protein homooligomerization; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
GO; GO:0006355; P:regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
GO; GO:0039592; P:suppression by virus of G2/M transition of host mitotic cell cycle; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
GO; GO:0006351; P:transcription, DNA-templated; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
GO; GO:0046718; P:viral entry into host cell; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0075732; P:viral penetration into host nucleus; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
HAMAP; MF_04080; HIV_VPR; 1.
InterPro; IPR000012; RetroV_VpR/X.
Pfam; PF00522; VPR; 1.
PRINTS; PR00444; HIVVPRVPX.
3: Inferred from homology;
Activator {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU364021, ECO:0000256|SAAS:SAAS00144503};
Apoptosis {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080};
Cell cycle {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU364021, ECO:0000256|SAAS:SAAS00144505};
Host G2/M cell cycle arrest by virus {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-
Rule:MF_04080};
Host nucleus {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU364021, ECO:0000256|SAAS:SAAS00492936};
Host-virus interaction {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080};
Ion channel {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080};
Ion transport {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080};
Modulation of host cell cycle by virus {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-
Rule:MF_04080}; Phosphoprotein {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080};
Transcription {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU364021, ECO:0000256|SAAS:SAAS00144488};
Transcription regulation {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU364021, ECO:0000256|SAAS:SAAS00144488};
Transport {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080};
Viral penetration into host nucleus {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU364021, ECO:0000256|SAAS:SAAS00144475};
Virion {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU364021, ECO:0000256|SAAS:SAAS00492961};
Virus entry into host cell {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04080,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU364021, ECO:0000256|SAAS:SAAS00144475}.
REGION 1 42 Homooligomerization. {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-
Rule:MF_04080}.
SEQUENCE 96 AA; 11285 MW; 2845B01A6989C14D CRC64;
MEQAPADQGP QREPYNEWTL ELLEELKNEA VRHFPRNWLH GLGQHIYETY GDTWAGVEAI
IRTLQQLLFI HFRIGCHHSR IGIIQQRRAR NGPSRS


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