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Protein X (HBx) (Peptide X) (pX)

 D8KY03_HBV              Unreviewed;       154 AA.
D8KY03;
05-OCT-2010, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL.
05-OCT-2010, sequence version 1.
28-MAR-2018, entry version 30.
RecName: Full=Protein X {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074, ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU361181};
AltName: Full=HBx {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074, ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU361181};
AltName: Full=Peptide X {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074, ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU361181};
AltName: Full=pX {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074, ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU361181};
Name=X {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU361181, ECO:0000313|EMBL:ACJ67864.1};
Hepatitis B virus (HBV).
Viruses; Retro-transcribing viruses; Hepadnaviridae;
Orthohepadnavirus.
NCBI_TaxID=10407 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:ACJ67864.1, ECO:0000313|Proteomes:UP000106010};
NCBI_TaxID=9606; Homo sapiens (Human).
NCBI_TaxID=9598; Pan troglodytes (Chimpanzee).
[1] {ECO:0000313|EMBL:ACJ67864.1, ECO:0000313|Proteomes:UP000101855, ECO:0000313|Proteomes:UP000106010}
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
STRAIN=IND-DIB112 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:ACJ67864.1}, and
IND-DIB24 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:ACJ67868.1};
Arankalle V.A.;
"First detection of a novel recombinant genotype of Hepatitis B virus
in north-eastern primitive tribe from India.";
Submitted (JUN-2008) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases.
[2] {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AMS75086.1, ECO:0000313|Proteomes:UP000159686}
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
STRAIN=IND-DIB-RMRC-2052 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:AMS75086.1};
Borkakoty B.;
"Circulation of genotype-I hepatitis B virus in Dibang Valley,
Arunachal Pradesh.";
Submitted (MAR-2016) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases.
-!- FUNCTION: Multifunctional protein that may modulate protein
degradation pathways, apoptosis, transcription, signal
transduction, cell cycle progress, and genetic stability by
directly or indirectly interacting with host factors.
{ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU361181}.
-!- FUNCTION: Multifunctional protein that plays a role in silencing
host antiviral defenses and promoting viral transcription. Does
not seem to be essential for HBV infection. May be directly
involved in development of cirrhosis and liver cancer
(hepatocellular carcinoma). Most of cytosolic activities involve
modulation of cytosolic calcium. The effect on apoptosis is
controversial depending on the cell types in which the studies
have been conducted. May induce apoptosis by localizing in
mitochondria and causing loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.
May also modulate apoptosis by binding host CFLAR, a key regulator
of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). Promotes viral
transcription by using the host E3 ubiquitin ligase DDB1 to target
the SMC5-SMC6 complex to proteasomal degradation. This host
complex would otherwise bind to viral episomal DNA, and prevents
its transcription. Moderately stimulates transcription of many
different viral and cellular transcription elements. Promoters and
enhancers stimulated by HBx contain DNA binding sites for NF-
kappa-B, AP-1, AP-2, c-EBP, ATF/CREB, or the calcium-activated
factor NF-AT. {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074}.
-!- PTM: A fraction may be phosphorylated in insect cells and HepG2
cells, a human hepatoblastoma cell line. Phosphorylated in vitro
by host protein kinase C or mitogen-activated protein kinase. N-
acetylated in insect cells. {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074}.
-!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the orthohepadnavirus protein X family.
{ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074, ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU361181}.
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EMBL; EU835240; ACJ67864.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
EMBL; EU835241; ACJ67868.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
EMBL; KU950741; AMS75086.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
Proteomes; UP000101855; Genome.
Proteomes; UP000106010; Genome.
Proteomes; UP000159686; Genome.
GO; GO:0033650; C:host cell mitochondrion; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
GO; GO:0042025; C:host cell nucleus; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
GO; GO:0039652; P:activation by virus of host NF-kappaB transcription factor activity; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
GO; GO:0006355; P:regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0039592; P:suppression by virus of G2/M transition of host mitotic cell cycle; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
GO; GO:0006351; P:transcription, DNA-templated; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
GO; GO:0019079; P:viral genome replication; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule.
HAMAP; MF_04074; HBV_X; 1.
InterPro; IPR000236; Transactivation_prot_X.
Pfam; PF00739; X; 1.
3: Inferred from homology;
Activation of host NF-kappa-B by virus {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-
Rule:MF_04074}; Activator {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074};
Apoptosis {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074};
Complete proteome {ECO:0000313|Proteomes:UP000101855,
ECO:0000313|Proteomes:UP000106010, ECO:0000313|Proteomes:UP000159686};
Host cytoplasm {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU361181};
Host G2/M cell cycle arrest by virus {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-
Rule:MF_04074};
Host mitochondrion {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU361181};
Host nucleus {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074,
ECO:0000256|RuleBase:RU361181};
Host-virus interaction {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074};
Modulation of host cell cycle by virus {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-
Rule:MF_04074}; Transcription {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074};
Transcription regulation {ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074}.
REGION 68 117 Mitochondrial targeting sequence.
{ECO:0000256|HAMAP-Rule:MF_04074}.
SEQUENCE 154 AA; 16484 MW; 0227A76BF5D2E84B CRC64;
MAARLCCQLD PARDVLCLRP VGAESCGRPL SGPLGDLPSP SSSAVPAVHG AHLSLRGLPV
CAFSSAGPCA LRFTSARRME TTVNAHLTLP KVLHKRTLGL SAMSTTDLEA YFKDCVFKDW
EELGEEIRLK VFVLGGCRHK LVCSPAPCNF FTSA


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