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#DIET-500 QuantiChrom™ Ethanol Assay Kit
Product name : QuantiChrom™ Ethanol Assay Kit
Catalog number : DIET-500
Supplier name : Bioassays
Data sheet: Ask more or other datasheet now !
About this Product :QuantiChrom™ Ethanol Assay Kit antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of QuantiChrom™ Ethanol Assay Kit.
More Details about
For quantitative determination of ethanol.
Method: OD580nm (Chemical).
Samples: alcoholic beverages etc.
Procedure: 10 min.
Size: 500 tests.
Detection limit: 0.04%.
Alcoholic drinks are among the daily consumed beverages. Studies
have shown heavy alcohol consumption may lead to various forms of
liver diseases and to increased mortality rates. Quantitative
determination of alcohol (ethanol, C2H5OH) finds applications in basic
research, drug discovery, clinic studies and winery.
Simple, direct and automation-ready procedures for measuring
ethanol concentration are very desirable. BioAssay Systems'
QuantiChromTM ethanol assay kit is based on an improved dichromate
method, in which dichromate is reduced by ethanol to a bluish chromic
(Cr3+) product. The intensity of color, measured at 580 nm, is a direct
measure of the alcohol concentration in the sample. The optimized
formulation substantially reduces interference by substances in the
raw samples and exhibits high sensitivity.
Ethanol determination in alcohol containing samples such as
beverages (e.g. wine, beer) and yeast cultures. For samples
containing less than 0.1% alcohol such as serum or plasma,
EnzyChromTM Ethanol Assay Kit (Cat# ECET-100) is recommended.
Sensitive and accurate. Detection range 0.04 – 4% alcohol in 96-well
Convenient and high-throughput. The procedure involves adding a
single working reagent, incubation for 8 min, adding a Stop Reagent,
and reading the optical density. Can be readily automated as a highthroughput
96-well plate assay for thousands of samples per day.
Versatility. Assays can be executed in 96-well plate or cuvet.
KIT CONTENTS (500 tests in 96-well plates)
Reagent A: 50 mL Reagent B: 50 mL
10% TCA: 50 mL Standard: 2 mL 10% (v/v) ethanol
Storage conditions. The kit is shipped at room temperature. Store
reagents at room temperature and the ethanol standard at 4°C. Shelf
life: 12 months after receipt.
Precautions: reagents are for research use only. Normal precautions
for laboratory reagents should be exercised while using the reagents.
MATERIALS REQUIRED, BUT NOT PROVIDED
Pipeting (multi-channel) devices.
Procedure using 96-well plate:
Clear-bottom 96-well plates (e.g. Corning Costar) and plate reader.
Procedure using cuvette:
Centrifuge tubes, table centrifuge, cuvets and spectrophotometer.
Sample Type: culture medium
References: Lin, YY et al (2009). Protein acetylation microarray reveals that NuA4 controls key metabolic target regulating gluconeogenesis. Cell 136(6):1073-84
Pubmed ID: 19303850
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=19303850
Abstract: Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) conduct many critical functions through nonhistone substrates in metazoans, but only chromatin-associated nonhistone substrates are known in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using yeast proteome microarrays, we identified and validated many nonchromatin substrates of the essential nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4 (NuA4) complex. Among these, acetylation sites (Lys19 and 514) of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1p) were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Acetylation at Lys514 was crucial for enzymatic activity and the ability of yeast cells to grow on nonfermentable carbon sources. Furthermore, Sir2p deacetylated Pck1p both in vitro and in vivo. Loss of Pck1p activity blocked the extension of yeast chronological life span caused by water starvation. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells, human Pck1 acetylation and glucose production were dependent on TIP60, the human homolog of ESA1. Our findings demonstrate a regulatory function for the NuA4 complex in glucose metabolism and life span by acetylating a critical metabolic enzyme.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2696288
Sample Type: blood
References: Wang, J et al (2009). Altered pattern of Na,K-ATPase activity and mRNA during chronic alcohol consumption by juvenile and adolescent rats. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 29(1):69-80
Pubmed ID: 18629626
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=18629626
Abstract: The effect of chronic ethanol consumption on cerebral cortical activity of Na,K-ATPase was determined in Long-Evans (LE) rats fed an ethanol-containing diet beginning at different stages of development. Na,K-ATPase activity was operationally resolved into alpha1 and alpha2/3 isozyme activities. There was no significant difference in Na,K-ATPase activities before and after alcohol consumption in the preparations from adult rats. However, for rats beginning alcohol consumption as adolescents, the alpha2/3 activity was significantly elevated following chronic alcohol consumption. Both LE and Sprague-Dawley rats showed this same selective increase in cortical alpha2/3 activity when rats began alcohol consumption as juveniles. The shift in cortical alpha2/3 activity was not observed in cerebellum or subcortical forebrain and was reversible when rats were fed ethanol throughout the normal adolescent period and then withdrawn and tested 2 weeks later (during the adult period). Levels of isoform-specific mRNA were determined in preparations of cerebral cortices of rats showing elevated alpha2/3 isozyme activities. In these preparations, isoform specific alpha2 and alpha3 mRNA was significantly elevated. There was no effect of ethanol feeding on cortical alpha1 mRNA. These findings indicate that the longer term effects of ethanol on the developing brain include elevated Na,K-ATPase activity and a mechanism that is pre-translational and isoform specific.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sample Type: media
Species: neuronal cell
References: Biggio, F et al (2007). Flumazenil selectively prevents the increase in alpha(4)-subunit gene expression and an associated change in GABA(A) receptor function induced by ethanol withdrawal. J Neurochem. 102(3):657-66
Pubmed ID: 17403139
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=17403139
Abstract: The actions of ethanol on gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors are still highly controversial issues but it appears that some of its pharmacological effects may depend on receptor subunit composition. Prolonged ethanol exposure produces tolerance and dependence and its withdrawal alters GABA(A) receptor subunit gene expression and function. Whereas benzodiazepines are clinically effective in ameliorating ethanol withdrawal symptoms, work in our laboratory showed that benzodiazepines also prevent, in vitro, some of the ethanol withdrawal-induced molecular and functional changes of the GABA(A) receptors. In the present work, we investigated the effects, on such changes, of the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil that can positively modulate alpha(4)-containing receptors. We here report that flumazenil prevented both the ethanol withdrawal-induced up-regulation of the alpha(4)-subunit and the increase in its own modulatory action. In contrast, flumazenil did not inhibit ethanol withdrawal-induced decrease in alpha(1)- and delta-subunit expression as well as the corresponding decrease in the modulatory action on GABA(A) receptor function of both the alpha(1)-selective ligand zaleplon and the delta-containing receptor preferentially acting steroid allopregnanolone. These observations are the first molecular and functional evidence that show a selective inhibition by flumazenil of the up-regulation of alpha(4)-subunit expression elicited by ethanol withdrawal.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sample Type: serum
References: Khanna, D et al (2007). Inducible nitric oxide synthase attenuates adrenergic signaling in alcohol fed rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 50(6):692-6
Pubmed ID: 18091587
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=18091587
Abstract: Chronic, excessive alcohol consumption is associated with myocardial dysfunction in humans. The molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways contributing to this cardiac dysfunction remain largely unknown. This study examined the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on myocardial function and cardiac myocyte signaling pathways. Adult male rats were fed a commercially prepared diet containing either ethanol (13 g/kg/d) or isocaloric control diet for 1 month. In vivo hemodynamics were measured in awake rats after inserting a catheter tip in the left ventricle under general anesthesia. Ventricular dysfunction was evidenced in awake, alcohol-fed rats by increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure, decreased systolic developed left ventricular pressure, and decreases in both positive and negative dp/dt compared with controls. Cardiac myocytes isolated from alcohol-fed rats also demonstrated an attenuated response to the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, compared to controls. This response was significantly reversed by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Western analyses confirmed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein synthesis in cardiac myocytes isolated from alcohol fed rats. It is therefore concluded that chronic alcohol ingestion results in iNOS-mediated attenuation of adrenergic signaling and depression in both systolic and diastolic function in rats.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sample Type: starch
References: Kim, HR et al (2011). Raw starch fermentation to ethanol by an industrial distiller's yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing glucoamylase and α-amylase genes. Biotechnol Lett. 33(8):1643-8
Pubmed ID: 21479627
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=21479627
Abstract: Industrial strains of a polyploid, distiller's Saccharomyces cerevisiae that produces glucoamylase and α-amylase was used for the direct fermentation of raw starch to ethanol. Strains contained either Aspergillus awamori glucoamylase gene (GA1), Debaryomyces occidentalis glucoamylase gene (GAM1) or D. occidentalis α-amylase gene (AMY), singly or in combination, integrated into their chromosomes. The strain expressing both GA1 and AMY generated 10.3% (v/v) ethanol (80.9 g l(-1)) from 20% (w/v) raw corn starch after 6 days of fermentation, and decreased the raw starch content to 21% of the initial concentration.
[PubMed - in process]
Sample Type: oil-palm
References: Alam, MZ et al (2009). Production of bioethanol by direct bioconversion of oil-palm industrial effluent in a stirred-tank bioreactor. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 36(6):801-8
Pubmed ID: 19294441
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=19294441
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing bioethanol from palm-oil mill effluent generated by the oil-palm industries through direct bioconversion process. The bioethanol production was carried out through the treatment of compatible mixed cultures such as Thrichoderma harzianum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Mucor hiemalis, and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Simultaneous inoculation of T. harzianum and S. cerevisiae was found to be the mixed culture that yielded the highest ethanol production (4% v/v or 31.6 g/l). Statistical optimization was carried out to determine the operating conditions of the stirred-tank bioreactor for maximum bioethanol production by a two-level fractional factorial design with a single central point. The factors involved were oxygen saturation level (pO(2)%), temperature, and pH. A polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Statistical analysis showed that the maximum ethanol production of 4.6% (v/v) or 36.3 g/l was achieved at a temperature of 32 degrees C, pH of 6, and pO(2) of 30%. The results of the model validation test under the developed optimum process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 4.6% (v/v) to 6.5% (v/v) or 51.3 g/l with 89.1% chemical-oxygen-demand removal.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sample Type: plasma
References: Pisu, MG et al (2011). Effects of voluntary ethanol consumption on emotional state and stress responsiveness in socially isolated rats. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol.21(5):414-25
Pubmed ID: 21067904
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=21067904
Abstract: Social isolation of rats immediately after weaning is thought to represent an animal model of anxiety-like disorders. This mildly stressful condition reduces the cerebrocortical and plasma concentrations of 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (3α,5α-TH PROG) as well as increases the sensitivity of rats to the effects of acute ethanol administration on the concentrations of this neuroactive steroid. We further investigated the effects of voluntary consumption of ethanol at concentrations increasing from 2.5 to 10% over 4 weeks of isolation. Isolated rats showed a reduced ethanol preference compared with group-housed animals. Ethanol consumption did not affect the isolation-induced down-regulation of BDNF or Arc, but it attenuated the increase in the cerebrocortical concentration of 3α,5α-TH PROG induced by foot-shock stress in both isolated and group-housed animals as well as increased the percentage of number of entries made by socially isolated rats into the open arms in the elevated plus-maze test. Ethanol consumption did not affect expression of the α₄ subunit of the GABA(A) receptor in the hippocampus of group-housed or isolated rats, whereas it up-regulated the δ subunit throughout the hippocampus under both conditions. The results suggest that low consumption of ethanol may ameliorate some negative effects of social isolation on stress sensitivity and behavior.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3044778 [Available on 2012/5/1]
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