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#DAMY-100 QuantiChrom™ á_Amylase Assay Kit
Product name : QuantiChrom™ á_Amylase Assay Kit
Catalog number : DAMY-100
Supplier name : Bioassays
Data sheet: Ask more or other datasheet now !
About this Product :QuantiChrom™ á_Amylase Assay Kit antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of QuantiChrom™ á_Amylase Assay Kit.
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Sample Type: serum
References: Gabbi, C et al (2008). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in LXRbeta-/- mice is associated with a reduction in aquaporin-1 expression. PNAS 105(39):15052-7
Pubmed ID: 18806227
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=18806227
Abstract: Liver X receptors (LXRs) alpha and beta are nuclear oxysterol receptors with a key role in cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. In LXRbeta(-/-) mice on a normal diet, there is a reduction in size of perigonadal fat pad and, on high-fat diet there is resistance to obesity. In the present study, we investigated the reason for the resistance of LXRbeta(-/-) mice to weight gain. In LXRbeta(-/-) mice we found pancreatic exocrine insufficiency with reduced serum levels of amylase and lipase, reduced proteolytic activity in feces, chronic inflammatory infiltration, and, in the ductal epithelium, an increased apoptosis without compensatory proliferation. Electron microscopy revealed ductal dilatation with intraductal laminar structures characteristic of cystic fibrosis. To investigate the relationship between LXRbeta and pancreatic secretion, we studied the expression of LXRbeta and the water channel, aquaporin-1 (AQP1), in the ductal epithelium of the pancreas. In WT mice, ductal epithelial cells expressed LXRbeta in the nuclei and AQP1 on the plasma membrane. In LXRbeta(-/-) mice neither LXRbeta nor AQP1 was detectable. Moreover, in WT mice the LXR agonist (T2320) increased AQP1 gene expression. These data demonstrate that in LXRbeta(-/-) mice dietary resistance to weight gain is caused by pancreatic insufficiency and that LXRbeta regulates pancreatic exocrine secretion through the control of AQP1 expression. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is the main cause of malabsorption syndrome responsible for weight loss in adults and growth failure in children. Several genes are known to be involved in the pathogenesis and susceptibility to pancreatic insufficiency. LXRbeta should be included in that list.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2567491
References: He, S et al (2009). Receptor interacting protein kinase-3 determines cellular necrotic response to TNF-alpha. Cell 137(6):1100-11
Pubmed ID: 19524512
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=19524512
Abstract: Smac mimetics induce apoptosis synergistically with TNF-alpha by triggering the formation of a caspase-8-activating complex containing receptor interacting protein kinase-1 (RIPK1). Caspase inhibitors block this form of apoptosis in many types of cells. However, in several other cell lines, caspase inhibitors switch the apoptotic response to necrosis. A genome wide siRNA screen revealed another member of the RIP kinase family, RIP3, to be required for necrosis. The expression of RIP3 in different cell lines correlates with their responsiveness to necrosis induction. The kinase activity of RIP3 is essential for necrosis execution. Upon induction of necrosis, RIP3 is recruited to RIPK1 to form a necrosis-inducing complex. Embryonic fibroblasts from RIP3 knockout mice are resistant to necrosis and RIP3 knockout animals are devoid of inflammation inflicted tissue damage in an acute pancreatitis model. These data indicate RIP3 as the determinant for cellular necrosis in response to TNF-alpha family of death-inducing cytokines.
Comment in Cell. 2009 Jul 23;138(2):229-32.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sample Type: tissue
References: Korach-André, M et al (2011). Liver X receptors regulate de novo lipogenesis in a tissue-specific manner in C57BL/6 female mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.301(1):E210-22
Pubmed ID: 21521718
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=21521718
Abstract: The liver X receptors (LXRs) play a key role in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism but are also important regulators of glucose metabolism. Recently, LXRs have been proposed as a glucose sensor affecting LXR-dependent gene expression. We challenged wild-type (WT) and LXRαβ(-/-) mice with a normal diet (ND) or a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD). Magnetic resonance imaging showed different fat distribution between WT and LXRαβ(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, gonadal (GL) adipocyte volume decreased on HCD compared with ND in WT mice, whereas it slightly increased in LXRαβ(-/-) mice. Interestingly, insulin-stimulated lipogenesis of isolated GL fat cells was reduced on HCD compared with ND in LXRαβ(-/-) mice, whereas no changes were observed in WT mice. Net de novo lipogenesis (DNL) calculated from Vo(2) and Vco(2) was significantly higher in LXRαβ(-/-) than in WT mice on HCD. Histology of HCD-fed livers showed hepatic steatosis in WT mice but not in LXRαβ(-/-) mice. Glucose tolerance was not different between groups, but insulin sensitivity was decreased by the HCD in WT but not in LXRαβ(-/-) mice. Finally, gene expression analysis of adipose tissue showed induced expression of genes involved in DNL in LXRαβ(-/-) mice compared with WT animals as opposed to the liver, where expression of DNL genes was repressed in LXRαβ(-/-) mice. We thus conclude that absence of LXRs stimulates DNL in adipose tissue, but suppresses DNL in the liver, demonstrating opposite roles of LXR in DNL regulation in these two tissues. These results show tissue-specific regulation of LXR activity, a crucial finding for drug development.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sample Type: artery tissues
References: Pankajakshan, D et al (2011). Successful Transfection of Genes Using AAV-2/9 Vector in Swine Coronary and Peripheral Arteries. J Surg Res. 2011 Mar 21. [Epub ahead of print]
Pubmed ID: 21529824
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=21529824
BACKGROUND: Gene therapy has attracted attention for its potential to treat several cardiovascular diseases. The use of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to facilitate therapeutic gene transfer to suppress intimal hyperplasia is a promising concept. The objective of this study was to analyze the in vivo transduction of a novel recombinant AAV-2/9 vector with SM22α promoter, containing β-galactosidase gene (LacZ) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) as reporter genes, to the medial layer smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of swine coronary and peripheral arteries.
METHODS: The AAV-2/9 vector containing SM22α (1 × 10(13) pfu) were administered into carotid/femoral/coronary arteries of domestic swine using irrigating balloon catheter-based gene delivery. Following gene transfer, cryosections of arteries were processed for X-Gal and GFP analysis. Fluorescence microscopy and Western blotting were done to analyze the GFP expression in the SMCs.
RESULTS: LacZ mRNA expression was visualized in the medial layer 7 d after vector administration. The GFP expression was detected at day 7 and lasted for at least 2 mo showing the longer-lasting expression of the AAV-2/9 vector. Control arteries did not show any expression of GFP or LacZ. There was no significant effect of AAV-2/9 viral transduction on serum amylase, fibrinogen, and serum CRP levels.
CONCLUSION: These finding support the use of AAV-2/9 as a vector to effectively transduce a gene in SMCs of coronary and peripheral arteries without causing inflammation.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher] PMCID: PMC3150285Available on 2012/9/21]
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