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Pubmed ID :25240148
Publication Date : //

Estrogen modulates β2-adrenoceptor-induced cell-mediated and inflammatory immune responses through ER-α involving distinct intracellular signaling pathways, antioxidant enzymes, and nitric oxide.


Sympathetic noradrenergic neuronal activity in the lymphoid organs regulates immunity through the release and binding of norepinephrine to β2-adrenergic receptors (AR) on lymphocytes. In women, estrogen modulates immune responses during menstrual cycles, and in aging and age-associated diseases. The intent of the present study is to characterize the extent of immunomodulation by β2-AR in the presence of estrogen and the involvement of intracellular signaling mechanisms including the role of antioxidant enzymes (AOE) in lymphocytes. In vitro effects of terbutaline, β2-AR agonist, either alone or in combination with 17β-estradiol (E2) were examined on splenocyte proliferation, cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-6) production, intracellular signaling molecules (p-ERK, p-CREB, p-Akt, and p-NF-κB) expression, NO production, and AOE activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)]. The specificity of their actions was investigated using β-AR antagonist, and inhibitors of signaling targets and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Terbutaline suppressed T cell proliferation and IL-6 production and increased AOE activities involving ERK, PKA, PKC, and NF-κB pathways and NO production. E2 alone enhanced T cell proliferation and decreased IL-6 production and NF-κB expression through ER-α. E2 in the presence of terbutaline reversed terbutaline-induced effects on T cell proliferation, IL-6 production, p-ERK and p-CREB expression, AOE activities, NO production, and NF-κB expression. Estrogen through ER-α differentially modulates β2-AR-induced immune responses involving ERK, PKA, PKC, and NF-κB pathways, and NO that may be responsible for estrogen-induced immunosenescence and development of female-specific diseases.

Authors : Priyanka Hannah P , Singh Ran Vijay , Pratap Uday P , ThyagaRajan Srinivasan ,

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