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GM-CSF and IL-4 are not involved in IVIG-mediated amelioration of ITP in mice: a role for IL-11 cannot be ruled out.
Previously, we have reported that interleukin (IL)-4, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-11, but not IL-33, are up-regulated in two strains of mice with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) that are responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment. Previously, IL-4 was ruled out in the mechanism of IVIg; however, other publications have suggested this cytokine as a major player in the mechanism of IVIg action. Thus, we sought to further investigate a role for IL-4 and, in addition, GM-CSF and IL-11 in the mechanism of action of IVIg using a murine model of ITP. A passive platelet antibody model was used to generate ITP in IL-4 receptor knock-out (IL-4R ), IL-11 receptor knock-out (IL-11Rα ) and GM-CSF knock-out (Csf2 ) mice. We also used a neutralizing antibody to IL-11 and recombinant human IL-11 (rhIL-11) in addition to depleting basophils in vivo to study the effect of IVIg to ameliorate ITP. Our results showed that basophils, IL-4 and GM-CSF were unimportant in both ITP induction and its amelioration by IVIg. The role of IL-11 in these processes was less clear. Even though IL-11Rα mice with ITP responded to IVIg similarly to wild-type (WT) mice, treatment of ITP WT mice with rhIL-11 instead of IVIg showed an increase in platelet numbers and WT mice administered anti-IL-11 showed a significant reduction in the ability of IVIg to ameliorate the ITP. Our findings indicate that neither IL-4, basophils or GM-CSF have roles in IVIg amelioration of ITP; however, a role for IL-11 requires further study.
Authors : Lewis B J B , Leontyev D , Neschadim A , Blacquiere M , Branch D R ,
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