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Pubmed ID :29890347
Publication Date : //

Endoplasmic reticulum stress in autoimmune diseases: Can altered protein quality control and/or unfolded protein response contribute to autoimmunity? A critical review on Sjögren's syndrome.


For many years, researchers in the field of autoimmunity have focused on the role of the immune components in the etiopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, some studies have demonstrated the importance of target tissues in their pathogenesis and the breach of immune tolerance. The immune system as well as target tissue cells (plasmatic, β-pancreatic, fibroblast-like synoviocytes, thyroid follicular and epithelial cells of the lachrymal glands, salivary glands, intestine, bronchioles and renal tubules) share the characteristic of secretory cells with an extended endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The function of these cells depends considerably on a normal ER function and calcium homeostasis, so they can produce and secrete their main components, which include glycoproteins involved in antigenic presentation such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II. All these proteins are synthesized and modified in the ER, and for this reason disturbances in the normal functions of this organelle such as protein folding, protein quality control, calcium homeostasis and redox balance, promote accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, a condition known as ER stress. Autoimmune diseases are characterized by inflammation, which has been associated with an ER stress condition. Interestingly, patients with these diseases contain circulating auto-antibodies against chaperone proteins (such as Calnexin and GRP94), thus affecting the folding and assembly of MHC class I and II glycoproteins and their loading with peptide. The main purpose of this article is to review the involvement of the protein quality control and unfolded protein response (UPR) in the ER protein homeostasis (proteostasis) and their alterations in autoimmune diseases. In addition, we describe the interaction between ER stress and inflammation and evidences are shown of how autoimmune diseases are associated with an ER stress condition, with a special emphasis on the second most prevalent autoimmune rheumatic disease, Sjögren's syndrome.

Authors : Barrera María-José , Aguilera Sergio , Castro Isabel , González Sergio , Carvajal Patricia , Molina Claudio , Hermoso Marcela A , González María-Julieta ,

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