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Pubmed ID :29915137
Publication Date : //

Monoamines Inhibit GABAergic Neurons in Ventrolateral Preoptic Area That Make Direct Synaptic Connections to Hypothalamic Arousal Neurons.


The hypothalamus plays an important role in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states. While the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of sleep, the lateral posterior part of the hypothalamus contains neuronal populations implicated in maintenance of arousal, including orexin-producing neurons (orexin neurons) in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). During a search for neurons that make direct synaptic contact with histidine decarboxylase-positive (HDC+), histaminergic neurons (HDC neurons) in the TMN and orexin neurons in the LHA of male mice, we found that these arousal-related neurons are heavily innervated by GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area including the VLPO. We further characterized GABAergic neurons electrophysiologically in the VLPO (GABA neurons) that make direct synaptic contact with these hypothalamic arousal-related neurons. These neurons (GABA or GABA neurons) were both potently inhibited by noradrenaline and serotonin, showing typical electrophysiological characteristics of sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO. This work provides direct evidence of monosynaptic connectivity between GABA neurons and hypothalamic arousal neurons and identifies the effects of monoamines on these neuronal pathways. Rabies-virus-mediated tracing of input neurons of two hypothalamic arousal-related neuron populations, histaminergic and orexinergic neurons, showed that they receive similar distributions of input neurons in a variety of brain areas, with rich innervation by GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area, including the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), a region known to play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of sleep. Electrophysiological experiments found that GABAergic neurons in the VLPO (GABA neurons) that make direct input to orexin or histaminergic neurons are potently inhibited by noradrenaline and serotonin, suggesting that these monoamines disinhibit histamine and orexin neurons. This work demonstrated functional and structural interactions between GABA neurons and hypothalamic arousal-related neurons.

Authors : Saito Yuki C , Maejima Takashi , Nishitani Mitsuhiro , Hasegawa Emi , Yanagawa Yuchio , Mieda Michihiro , Sakurai Takeshi ,

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