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Pubmed ID :29915575
Publication Date : //

Gingival Periodontal Disease (PD) Level-Butyric Acid Affects the Systemic Blood and Brain Organ: Insights Into the Systemic Inflammation of Periodontal Disease.


Butyric acid (BA) is produced by periodontopathic bacterial pathogens and contributes to periodontal disease (PD) induction. Moreover, PD has been associated with detrimental effects which subsequently may lead to systemic disease (SD) development affecting certain organs. Surprisingly, the potential systemic manifestations and organ-localized effects of BA have never been elucidated. Here, we simulated BA-based oral infection among young (20-week-old) rats and isolated blood cytosol to determine BA effects on stress network-related signals [total heme, hydrogen peroxide (HO), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), free fatty acid (FFA), NADP/NADPH], inflammation-associated signals [caspases (CASP12 and CASP1), IL-1β, TNF-α, metallomatrix proteinase-9 (MMP-9), and toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2)], and neurological blood biomarkers [presenilin (PS1 and PS2) and amyloid precursor protein (APP)]. Similarly, we extracted the brain from both control and BA-treated rats, isolated the major regions (hippocampus, pineal gland, hypothalamus, cerebrum, and cerebellum), and, subsequently, measured stress network-related signals [oxidative stress: total heme, NADPH, HO, GR, and FFA; ER stress: GADD153, calcium, CASP1, and CASP3] and a brain neurodegenerative biomarker (Tau). In the blood, we found that BA was no longer detectable. Nevertheless, oxidative stress and inflammation were induced. Interestingly, amounts of representative inflammatory signals (CASP12, CASP1, IL-1β, and TNF-α) decreased while MMP-9 levels increased which we believe would suggest that inflammation was MMP-9-modulated and would serve as an alternative inflammatory mechanism. Similarly, TLR2 activity was increased which would insinuate that neurological blood biomarkers (APP, PS1, and PS2) were likewise affected. In the brain, BA was not detected, however, we found that both oxidative and ER stresses were likewise altered in all brain regions. Interestingly, tau protein amounts were significantly affected in the cerebellar and hippocampal regions which coincidentally are the major brain regions affected in several neurological disorders. Taken together, we propose that gingival BA can potentially cause systemic inflammation ascribable to prolonged systemic manifestations in the blood and localized detrimental effects within the brain organ.

Authors : Cueno Marni E , Ochiai Kuniyasu ,

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