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Pubmed ID :11076507
Publication Date : //

Structural influence of hydrophobic core residues on metal binding and specificity in carbonic anhydrase II.


Aromatic residues in the hydrophobic core of human carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) influence metal ion binding in the active site. Residues F93, F95, and W97 are contained in a beta-strand that also contains two zinc ligands, H94 and H96. The aromatic amino acids contribute to the high zinc affinity and slow zinc dissociation rate constant of CAII [Hunt, J. A., and Fierke, C. A. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20364-20372]. Substitution of these aromatic amino acids with smaller side chains enhances Cu(2+) affinity while decreasing Co(2+) and Zn(2+) affinity [Hunt, J. A., Mahiuddin, A., & Fierke, C. A. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 9054-9062]. Here, X-ray crystal structures of zinc-bound F93I/F95M/W97V and F93S/F95L/W97M CAIIs reveal the introduction of new cavities in the hydrophobic core, compensatory movements of surrounding side chains, and the incorporation of buried water molecules; nevertheless, the enzyme maintains tetrahedral zinc coordination geometry. However, a conformational change of direct metal ligand H94 as well as indirect (i.e., "second-shell") ligand Q92 accompanies metal release in both F93I/F95M/W97V and F93S/F95L/W97M CAIIs, thereby eliminating preorientation of the histidine ligands with tetrahedral geometry in the apoenzyme. Only one cobalt-bound variant, F93I/F95M/W97V CAII, maintains tetrahedral metal coordination geometry; F93S/F95L/W97M CAII binds Co(2+) with trigonal bipyramidal coordination geometry due to the addition of azide anion to the metal coordination polyhedron. The copper-bound variants exhibit either square pyramidal or trigonal bipyramidal metal coordination geometry due to the addition of a second solvent molecule to the metal coordination polyhedron. The key finding of this work is that aromatic core residues serve as anchors that help to preorient direct and second-shell ligands to optimize zinc binding geometry and destabilize alternative geometries. These geometrical constraints are likely a main determinant of the enhanced zinc/copper specificity of CAII as compared to small molecule chelators.

Authors : Cox J D , Hunt J A , Compher K M , Fierke C A , Christianson D W ,

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