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Protein kinase B or Akt (PKB/Akt) is a serine/threonine kinase, which in mammals comprises three highly homologous members known as PKBalpha (Akt1), PKBbeta (Akt2), and PKBgamma (Akt3). PKB/Akt is activated in cells exposed to diverse stimuli such as hormones, growth factors, and extracellular matrix components. The activation mechanism remains to be fully characterised but occurs downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K). PI-3K generates phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)), a lipid second messenger essential for the translocation of PKB/Akt to the plasma membrane where it is phosphorylated and activated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1) and possibly other kinases. PKB/Akt phosphorylates and regulates the function of many cellular proteins involved in processes that include metabolism, apoptosis, and proliferation. Recent evidence indicates that PKB/Akt is frequently constitutively active in many types of human cancer. Constitutive PKB/Akt activation can occur due to amplification of PKB/Akt genes or as a result of mutations in components of the signalling pathway that activates PKB/Akt. Although the mechanisms have not yet been fully characterised, constitutive PKB/Akt signalling is believed to promote proliferation and increased cell survival and thereby contributing to cancer progression. This review surveys recent developments in understanding the mechanisms and consequences of PKB/Akt activation in human malignancy.
Authors : Nicholson Karleen M , Anderson Neil G ,
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WP1493: Carbon assimilation C4 pathway
WP2032: TSH signaling pathway
WP211: BMP signaling pathway
WP2203: TSLP Signaling Pathway
WP2272: Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection
WP2292: Chemokine signaling pathway
WP2324: AGE/RAGE pathway
WP2341: vitamin B1 (thiamin) biosynthesis and salvage pathway
WP2371: Parkinsons Disease Pathway
WP1: Statin Pathway
WP10: IL-9 Signaling Pathway
WP1004: Kit Receptor Signaling Pathway
WP1010: Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency
WP1011: T Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway
WP1012: IL-7 Signaling Pathway
WP1014: Androgen receptor signaling pathway
WP1016: Wnt Signaling Pathway
WP1019: FAS pathway and Stress induction of HSP regulation
WP1022: Hedgehog Signaling Pathway
WP1025: B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway
WP1028: Pentose Phosphate Pathway
WP1029: Notch Signaling Pathway
WP1031: IL-3 Signaling Pathway
WP1033: ACE Inhibitor Pathway
WP1037: p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway
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