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The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been recognized as the major auxin for more than 70 y. Although several pathways have been proposed, how auxin is synthesized in plants is still unclear. Previous genetic and enzymatic studies demonstrated that both TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) and YUCCA (YUC) flavin monooxygenase-like proteins are required for biosynthesis of IAA during plant development, but these enzymes were placed in two independent pathways. In this article, we demonstrate that the TAA family produces indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) and the YUC family functions in the conversion of IPA to IAA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by a quantification method of IPA using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem MS. We further show that YUC protein expressed in Escherichia coli directly converts IPA to IAA. Indole-3-acetaldehyde is probably not a precursor of IAA in the IPA pathway. Our results indicate that YUC proteins catalyze a rate-limiting step of the IPA pathway, which is the main IAA biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis.
Authors : Mashiguchi Kiyoshi , Tanaka Keita , Sakai Tatsuya , Sugawara Satoko , Kawaide Hiroshi , Natsume Masahiro , Hanada Atsushi , Yaeno Takashi , Shirasu Ken , Yao Hong , McSteen Paula , Zhao Yunde , Hayashi Ken-ichiro , Kamiya Yuji , Kasahara Hiroyuki ,
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WP2316: PPAR signaling pathway
WP2339: vitamin B2 (riboflavin) biosynthesis and conversion to FMN and FAD pathway
WP2341: vitamin B1 (thiamin) biosynthesis and salvage pathway
WP2344: vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) biosynthesis and salvage pathway
WP2345: vitamin B7 (biotin) biosynthesis pathway
WP2347: vitamin B5 (pantothenate) and CoA biosynthesis Pathway
WP2349: vitamin B3 (niacin), NAD and NADP biosynthesis pathway
WP2353: vitamin B9 (folate) biosynthesis pathway
WP1: Statin Pathway
WP10: IL-9 Signaling Pathway
WP1004: Kit Receptor Signaling Pathway
WP1010: Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency
WP1011: T Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway
WP1012: IL-7 Signaling Pathway
WP1014: Androgen receptor signaling pathway
WP1016: Wnt Signaling Pathway
WP1019: FAS pathway and Stress induction of HSP regulation
WP102: Heme Biosynthesis
WP1020: Fatty Acid Biosynthesis
WP1022: Hedgehog Signaling Pathway
WP1024: Steroid Biosynthesis
WP1025: B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway
WP1028: Pentose Phosphate Pathway
WP1029: Notch Signaling Pathway
WP103: Cholesterol Biosynthesis
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