Did you know ? If you order before Friday 14h we deliver 90PCT of the the time next Tuesday, GENTAUR another in time delivery

Pubmed ID :24236171
Publication Date : //

The first modern human dispersals across Africa.


The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0's sister clade, L1'6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by "mitochondrial Eve") possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African "megadroughts" of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135-75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution.

Authors : Rito Teresa , Richards Martin B , Fernandes Verónica , Alshamali Farida , Cerny Viktor , Pereira Luísa , Soares Pedro ,

Related products :

Catalog number Product name Quantity
AR-0112-03 Africa Horse Sickness Virus PCR Kit RNA PCR Instrument 25
VET-E011-96R Africa horse sickness virus PCR detection kit, Equine, RNA 96rxs
VET-E011-96R Africa horse sickness virus PCR detection kit, Equine, RNA 48rxs
800604 Modern quality brand laptop with Windows 7 operating system
800604 Modern quality brand laptop with Windows operating system
800604 Modern quality brand laptop with Windows operating system 1
AR-0112-03 Africa Horse Sickness Virus RT_PCR Kit PCR Instrument *to see for appropriate equipment see catalogue No. MXX_000069 25
800604 PC control software: Modern quality brand laptop with Windows 7 operating system
orb60559 Ethinyl Estradiol Ethynyl estradiol is an orally bio-active estrogen used in almost all modern formulations of combined oral contraceptive pills. For research use only. 10 mg
N-0401 Nesfatin-1 (human) Nucleobindin-2 (25-106) (human), NUCB2 (25-106) (human), DNA-Binding Protein NEFA (25-106) (human), Gastric Cancer Antigen Zg4 (25-106) (human) 98 percent C427H691N113O134 CAS: 5mg
H-3695.0001 GRF (human) Salt Acetate Binding _ Synonym Somatoliberin (human), Somatocrinin (human), Somatorelin (human), Growth Hormone_Releasing Factor (human), Growth Hormone_Releasing Hormone (human), GHRH 1.0 mg
H-3695.0001 GRF (human) Salt Acetate Binding _ Synonym Somatoliberin (human), Somatocrinin (human), Somatorelin (human), Growth Hormone_Releasing Factor (human), Growth Hormone_Releasing Hormone (human), GHRH 1.0 mg
H-3695.0005 GRF (human) Salt Acetate Binding _ Synonym Somatoliberin (human), Somatocrinin (human), Somatorelin (human), Growth Hormone_Releasing Factor (human), Growth Hormone_Releasing Hormone (human), GHRH 5.0 mg
H-3695.0005 GRF (human) Salt Acetate Binding _ Synonym Somatoliberin (human), Somatocrinin (human), Somatorelin (human), Growth Hormone_Releasing Factor (human), Growth Hormone_Releasing Hormone (human), GHRH 5.0 mg
H-5602.0002 rec Monocyte Chemotactic Protein_3 (human) Salt _ Binding _ Synonym rec MCP_3 (human), rec Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 3 (human), rec Small Inducible Cytokine A7 (human), rec NC28 (human) SumF 2.0 µg
H-5598.0002 rec Monocyte Chemotactic Protein_2 (human) Salt _ Binding _ Synonym rec HC14 (human), rec Small Inducible Cytokine A8 (human), rec Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 2 (human), rec MCP_2 (human) SumF 2.0 µg
H-5598.0010 rec Monocyte Chemotactic Protein_2 (human) Salt _ Binding _ Synonym rec HC14 (human), rec Small Inducible Cytokine A8 (human), rec Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 2 (human), rec MCP_2 (human) SumF 10.0 µg
H-5962.0001 Kisspeptin_13 (human) Salt Trifluoroacetate Binding _ Synonym Kisspeptin_54 (42_54) (human), Kisspeptin_14 (2_14) (human), Metastin (42_54) (human), KiSS_1 (109_121) (human), Malignant Melanoma Met 1.0 mg
H-5598.0002 rec Monocyte Chemotactic Protein_2 (human) Salt _ Binding _ Synonym rec HC14 (human), rec Small Inducible Cytokine A8 (human), rec Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 2 (human), rec MCP_2 (human) SumF 2.0 µg
H-5962.0005 Kisspeptin_13 (human) Salt Trifluoroacetate Binding _ Synonym Kisspeptin_54 (42_54) (human), Kisspeptin_14 (2_14) (human), Metastin (42_54) (human), KiSS_1 (109_121) (human), Malignant Melanoma Met 5.0 mg
H-5962.0005 Kisspeptin_13 (human) Salt Trifluoroacetate Binding _ Synonym Kisspeptin_54 (42_54) (human), Kisspeptin_14 (2_14) (human), Metastin (42_54) (human), KiSS_1 (109_121) (human), Malignant Melanoma Met 5.0 mg
H-5602.0010 rec Monocyte Chemotactic Protein_3 (human) Salt _ Binding _ Synonym rec MCP_3 (human), rec Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 3 (human), rec Small Inducible Cytokine A7 (human), rec NC28 (human) SumF 10.0 µg
H-5598.0010 rec Monocyte Chemotactic Protein_2 (human) Salt _ Binding _ Synonym rec HC14 (human), rec Small Inducible Cytokine A8 (human), rec Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 2 (human), rec MCP_2 (human) SumF 10.0 µg
H-5602.0002 rec Monocyte Chemotactic Protein_3 (human) Salt _ Binding _ Synonym rec MCP_3 (human), rec Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 3 (human), rec Small Inducible Cytokine A7 (human), rec NC28 (human) SumF 2.0 µg
H-5602.0010 rec Monocyte Chemotactic Protein_3 (human) Salt _ Binding _ Synonym rec MCP_3 (human), rec Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 3 (human), rec Small Inducible Cytokine A7 (human), rec NC28 (human) SumF 10.0 µg


 

GENTAUR Belgium BVBA BE0473327336
Voortstraat 49, 1910 Kampenhout BELGIUM
Tel 0032 16 58 90 45

Fax 0032 16 50 90 45
info@gentaur.com | Gentaur





GENTAUR Ltd.
Howard Frank Turnberry House
1404-1410 High Road
Whetstone London N20 9BH
Tel 020 3393 8531 Fax 020 8445 9411
uk@gentaur.com | Gentaur

 

 




GENTAUR France SARL
9, rue Lagrange, 75005 Paris
Tel 01 43 25 01 50

Fax 01 43 25 01 60
RCS Paris B 484 237 888

SIRET 48423788800017

BNP PARIBAS PARIS PL MAUBERT BIC BNPAFRPPPRG

france@gentaur.com | Gentaur

GENTAUR GmbH
Marienbongard 20
52062 Aachen Deutschland
Support Karolina Elandt
Tel: 0035929830070
Fax: (+49) 241 56 00 47 88

Logistic :0241 40 08 90 86
Bankleitzahl 39050000
IBAN lautet DE8839050000107569353
Handelsregister Aachen HR B 16058
Umsatzsteuer-Identifikationsnummer *** DE 815175831
Steuernummer 201/5961/3925
de@gentaur.com | Gentaur

GENTAUR U.S.A
Genprice Inc, Logistics
547, Yurok Circle
San Jose, CA 95123
CA 95123
Tel (408) 780-0908,
Fax (408) 780-0908,
sales@genprice.com

Genprice Inc, Invoices and accounting
6017 Snell Ave, Ste 357
San Jose, CA 95123




GENTAUR Nederland BV
NL850396268B01 KVK nummer 52327027
Kuiper 1
5521 DG Eersel Nederland
Tel:  0208-080893  Fax: 0497-517897
nl@gentaur.com | Gentaur
IBAN: NL04 RABO 0156 9854 62   SWIFT RABONL2U






GENTAUR Spain
tel:0911876558
spain@gentaur.com | Gentaur






ГЕНТАУЪР БЪЛГАРИЯ
ID # 201 358 931 /BULSTAT
София 1000, ул. "Граф Игнатиев" 53 вх. В, ет. 2
Tel 0035924682280 Fax 0035924808322
e-mail: Sofia@gentaur.com | Gentaur
IBAN: BG11FINV91501014771636
BIC: FINVBGSF

GENTAUR Poland Sp. z o.o.


ul. Grunwaldzka 88/A m.2
81-771 Sopot, Poland
TEL Gdansk 058 710 33 44 FAX  058 710 33 48              

poland@gentaur.com | Gentaur

Other countries

Österreich +43720880899

Canada Montreal +15149077481

Ceská republika Praha +420246019719

Danmark +4569918806

Finland Helsset +358942419041

Magyarország Budapest +3619980547

Ireland Dublin+35316526556

Luxembourg+35220880274

Norge Oslo+4721031366

Sverige Stockholm+46852503438

Schweiz Züri+41435006251

US New York+17185132983

GENTAUR Italy
SRL IVA IT03841300167
Piazza Giacomo Matteotti, 6
24122 Bergamo Tel 02 36 00 65 93
Fax 02 36 00 65 94
italia@gentaur.com | Gentaur