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 SYUA_BOVIN              Reviewed;         140 AA.
10-JAN-2006, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
11-OCT-2005, sequence version 1.
13-FEB-2019, entry version 103.
RecName: Full=Alpha-synuclein;
Bos taurus (Bovine).
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi;
Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Ruminantia;
Pecora; Bovidae; Bovinae; Bos.
STRAIN=Crossbred X Angus; TISSUE=Ileum;
NIH - Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project;
Submitted (AUG-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases.
-!- FUNCTION: Neuronal protein that plays several roles in synaptic
activity such as regulation of synaptic vesicle trafficking and
subsequent neurotransmitter release. Participates as a monomer in
synaptic vesicle exocytosis by enhancing vesicle priming, fusion
and dilation of exocytotic fusion pores. Mechanistically, acts by
increasing local Ca(2+) release from microdomains which is
essential for the enhancement of ATP-induced exocytosis. Acts also
as a molecular chaperone in its multimeric membrane-bound state,
assisting in the folding of synaptic fusion components called
SNAREs (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein REceptors) at presynaptic
plasma membrane in conjunction with cysteine string protein-
alpha/DNAJC5. This chaperone activity is important to sustain
normal SNARE-complex assembly during aging. Plays also a role in
the regulation of the dopamine neurotransmission by associating
with the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and thereby modulating its
activity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P37840}.
-!- SUBUNIT: Soluble monomer. Homotetramer. A dynamic intracellular
population of tetramers and monomers coexists normally and the
tetramer plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis (By
similarity). Interacts with UCHL1 (By similarity). Interacts with
phospholipase D and histones. Interacts (via N-terminus) with
synphilin-1/SNCAIP; this interaction promotes formation of SNCA
inclusions in the cytoplasm. Interacts with CALM1. Interacts with
STXBP1; this interaction controls SNCA self-replicating
aggregation. Interacts with SNARE components VAMP2 and SNAP25;
these interactions allows SNARE complex assembly and integrity (By
similarity). {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P37377,
-!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P37840}.
Membrane {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P37840}. Nucleus
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P37840}. Cell junction, synapse
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P37840}. Secreted
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P37840}. Note=Membrane-bound in
dopaminergic neurons. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P37840}.
-!- PTM: Phosphorylated, predominantly on serine residues.
Phosphorylated on Tyr-125 upon osmotic stress (By similarity).
-!- PTM: Ubiquitinated. The predominant conjugate is the
diubiquitinated form (By similarity). {ECO:0000250}.
-!- PTM: Acetylation at Met-1 seems to be important for proper folding
and native oligomeric structure. {ECO:0000250}.
-!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the synuclein family. {ECO:0000305}.
Copyrighted by the UniProt Consortium, see
Distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) License
EMBL; BC102402; AAI02403.1; -; mRNA.
RefSeq; NP_001029213.1; NM_001034041.2.
RefSeq; XP_005207811.1; XM_005207754.3.
RefSeq; XP_005207812.1; XM_005207755.3.
RefSeq; XP_005207813.1; XM_005207756.3.
RefSeq; XP_005207814.1; XM_005207757.3.
RefSeq; XP_005207815.1; XM_005207758.3.
UniGene; Bt.12770; -.
ProteinModelPortal; Q3T0G8; -.
SMR; Q3T0G8; -.
BioGrid; 159869; 1.
STRING; 9913.ENSBTAP00000021300; -.
PaxDb; Q3T0G8; -.
PRIDE; Q3T0G8; -.
Ensembl; ENSBTAT00000021300; ENSBTAP00000021300; ENSBTAG00000024957.
GeneID; 282857; -.
KEGG; bta:282857; -.
CTD; 6622; -.
eggNOG; ENOG410IWI2; Eukaryota.
GeneTree; ENSGT00940000154211; -.
HOGENOM; HOG000008691; -.
HOVERGEN; HBG000481; -.
InParanoid; Q3T0G8; -.
KO; K04528; -.
OrthoDB; 1544450at2759; -.
TreeFam; TF332776; -.
Proteomes; UP000009136; Chromosome 6.
Bgee; ENSBTAG00000024957; Expressed in 10 organ(s), highest expression level in brain.
GO; GO:0015629; C:actin cytoskeleton; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0005938; C:cell cortex; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0030054; C:cell junction; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0005829; C:cytosol; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0005615; C:extracellular space; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0030426; C:growth cone; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0016234; C:inclusion body; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0016020; C:membrane; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0005739; C:mitochondrion; IEA:GOC.
GO; GO:0043025; C:neuronal cell body; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0005634; C:nucleus; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0048471; C:perinuclear region of cytoplasm; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0005886; C:plasma membrane; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0031092; C:platelet alpha granule membrane; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0098794; C:postsynapse; IEA:GOC.
GO; GO:0099512; C:supramolecular fiber; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0030672; C:synaptic vesicle membrane; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0003779; F:actin binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0043014; F:alpha-tubulin binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0050544; F:arachidonic acid binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0005509; F:calcium ion binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0005507; F:copper ion binding; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:1903136; F:cuprous ion binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0043027; F:cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity involved in apoptotic process; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0070840; F:dynein complex binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0008198; F:ferrous iron binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0042393; F:histone binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0030544; F:Hsp70 protein binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0042802; F:identical protein binding; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0019894; F:kinesin binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0000287; F:magnesium ion binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0016491; F:oxidoreductase activity; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0005543; F:phospholipid binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0051219; F:phosphoprotein binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0000149; F:SNARE binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0048156; F:tau protein binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0008270; F:zinc ion binding; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0006919; P:activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0008344; P:adult locomotory behavior; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0071280; P:cellular response to copper ion; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0034599; P:cellular response to oxidative stress; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0042416; P:dopamine biosynthetic process; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0060079; P:excitatory postsynaptic potential; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0006631; P:fatty acid metabolic process; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0060291; P:long-term synaptic potentiation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0001774; P:microglial cell activation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0042775; P:mitochondrial ATP synthesis coupled electron transport; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0007006; P:mitochondrial membrane organization; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:1904715; P:negative regulation of chaperone-mediated autophagy; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0051585; P:negative regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0045920; P:negative regulation of exocytosis; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0035067; P:negative regulation of histone acetylation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0031115; P:negative regulation of microtubule polymerization; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0032769; P:negative regulation of monooxygenase activity; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0043524; P:negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0051622; P:negative regulation of norepinephrine uptake; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0010642; P:negative regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0051612; P:negative regulation of serotonin uptake; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0070495; P:negative regulation of thrombin-activated receptor signaling pathway; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0032410; P:negative regulation of transporter activity; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0006638; P:neutral lipid metabolic process; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0006644; P:phospholipid metabolic process; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0045807; P:positive regulation of endocytosis; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0045921; P:positive regulation of exocytosis; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:1903284; P:positive regulation of glutathione peroxidase activity; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:1903285; P:positive regulation of hydrogen peroxide catabolic process; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0050729; P:positive regulation of inflammatory response; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0060732; P:positive regulation of inositol phosphate biosynthetic process; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:1901216; P:positive regulation of neuron death; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0001956; P:positive regulation of neurotransmitter secretion; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0033138; P:positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0071902; P:positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0001921; P:positive regulation of receptor recycling; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0051281; P:positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0031648; P:protein destabilization; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0051262; P:protein tetramerization; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0031623; P:receptor internalization; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0050812; P:regulation of acyl-CoA biosynthetic process; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0014059; P:regulation of dopamine secretion; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0014048; P:regulation of glutamate secretion; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0040012; P:regulation of locomotion; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0048169; P:regulation of long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0043030; P:regulation of macrophage activation; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0010517; P:regulation of phospholipase activity; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:1905606; P:regulation of presynapse assembly; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0022898; P:regulation of transmembrane transporter activity; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0042493; P:response to drug; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0034341; P:response to interferon-gamma; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0070555; P:response to interleukin-1; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0010040; P:response to iron(II) ion; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0032496; P:response to lipopolysaccharide; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0032026; P:response to magnesium ion; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0035493; P:SNARE complex assembly; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0050808; P:synapse organization; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0001963; P:synaptic transmission, dopaminergic; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0048488; P:synaptic vesicle endocytosis; IEA:Ensembl.
GO; GO:0016079; P:synaptic vesicle exocytosis; IEA:Ensembl.
InterPro; IPR001058; Synuclein.
InterPro; IPR002460; Synuclein_alpha.
PANTHER; PTHR13820; PTHR13820; 1.
PANTHER; PTHR13820:SF5; PTHR13820:SF5; 1.
Pfam; PF01387; Synuclein; 1.
2: Evidence at transcript level;
Acetylation; Cell junction; Complete proteome; Copper; Cytoplasm;
Membrane; Metal-binding; Nucleus; Phosphoprotein; Reference proteome;
Repeat; Secreted; Synapse; Ubl conjugation.
CHAIN 1 140 Alpha-synuclein.
METAL 2 2 Copper. {ECO:0000250}.
METAL 50 50 Copper. {ECO:0000250}.
MOD_RES 1 1 N-acetylmethionine.
MOD_RES 87 87 Phosphoserine.
MOD_RES 125 125 Phosphotyrosine; by FYN.
MOD_RES 129 129 Phosphoserine; by PLK2.
SEQUENCE 140 AA; 14508 MW; 1F37F1A7B795536C CRC64;

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Pathways :
WP2359: Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway
WP1003: Ovarian Infertility Genes
WP1047: TNF-alpha NF-kB Signaling Pathway
WP1120: Ovarian Infertility Genes
WP1163: TNF-alpha NF-kB Signaling Pathway
WP1209: EBV LMP1 signaling
WP1224: EBV LMP1 signaling
WP1225: estrogen signalling
WP1340: Ovarian Infertility Genes
WP1369: TNF-alpha NF-kB Signaling Pathway
WP1434: Osteopontin Signaling
WP1487: TNF-alpha and mucus production in lung epythelium
WP1531: Vitamin D synthesis
WP1566: Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
WP1571: EBV LMP1 signaling
WP1584: Type II diabetes mellitus
WP1614: 1- and 2-Methylnaphthalene degradation
WP1618: alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism
WP1655: Geraniol degradation
WP1772: Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling
WP1835: Interferon alpha/beta signaling
WP1904: RIG-I/MDA5 mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta pathways
WP1963: The effect of Glucocorticoids on target gene expression
WP210: Cytoplasmic Ribosomal Proteins
WP2100: AhR pathway

Related Genes :
[SNCA NACP PARK1] Alpha-synuclein (Non-A beta component of AD amyloid) (Non-A4 component of amyloid precursor) (NACP)
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Bibliography :
[30878495] Reprint of "Ganglioside lipids accelerate α-synuclein amyloid formation".
[30878283] Co-translational, Post-translational, and Non-catalytic Roles of N-Terminal Acetyltransferases.
[30877973] Therapeutic potentials of plant iridoids in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: A review.
[30877431] Alpha-synuclein suppresses mitochondrial protease ClpP to trigger mitochondrial oxidative damage and neurotoxicity.
[30875980] Modulation of Disordered Proteins with a Focus on Neurodegenerative Diseases and Other Pathologies.
[30875755] Prion and Prion-Like Protein Strains: Deciphering the Molecular Basis of Heterogeneity in Neurodegeneration.
[30873322] Mechanical and thermodynamic properties of Aβ, Aβ, and α-synuclein fibrils: a coarse-grained method to complement experimental studies.
[30872688] Probing Membrane Association of α-Synuclein Domains with VDAC Nanopore Reveals Unexpected Binding Pattern.
[30871620] Pathogenic alpha-synuclein aggregates preferentially bind to mitochondria and affect cellular respiration.
[30868473] Chronic Use of β-Blockers and the Risk of Parkinson's Disease.