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Mitogen-activated protein kinase 12 (MAP kinase 12) (MAPK 12) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 6) (ERK-6) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 gamma) (MAP kinase p38 gamma) (Stress-activated protein kinase 3)

 MK12_HUMAN              Reviewed;         367 AA.
P53778; Q14260; Q6IC53; Q99588; Q99672;
01-OCT-1996, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
15-JUL-1998, sequence version 3.
13-FEB-2019, entry version 201.
RecName: Full=Mitogen-activated protein kinase 12;
Short=MAP kinase 12;
Short=MAPK 12;
EC=2.7.11.24 {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10212242};
AltName: Full=Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 6;
Short=ERK-6;
AltName: Full=Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 gamma;
Short=MAP kinase p38 gamma;
AltName: Full=Stress-activated protein kinase 3;
Name=MAPK12; Synonyms=ERK6, SAPK3;
Homo sapiens (Human).
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi;
Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini;
Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo.
NCBI_TaxID=9606;
[1]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY,
AND MUTAGENESIS OF TYR-185.
TISSUE=Skeletal muscle;
PubMed=8633070; DOI=10.1073/pnas.93.9.4355;
Lechner C., Zahalka M.A., Giot J.-F., Moeller N.P.H., Ullrich A.;
"ERK6, a mitogen-activated protein kinase involved in C2C12 myoblast
differentiation.";
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93:4355-4359(1996).
[2]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
TISSUE=Skeletal muscle;
PubMed=9169156; DOI=10.1006/geno.1997.4633;
Goedert M., Hasegawa J., Craxton M., Leversha M.A., Clegg S.;
"Assignment of the human stress-activated protein kinase-3 gene
(SAPK3) to chromosome 22q13.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.";
Genomics 41:501-502(1997).
[3]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
PubMed=8920915; DOI=10.1006/bbrc.1996.1662;
Li Z., Jiang Y., Ulevitch R.J., Han J.;
"The primary structure of p38 gamma: a new member of p38 group of MAP
kinases.";
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 228:334-340(1996).
[4]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 2), AND VARIANT
MET-103.
PubMed=15461802; DOI=10.1186/gb-2004-5-10-r84;
Collins J.E., Wright C.L., Edwards C.A., Davis M.P., Grinham J.A.,
Cole C.G., Goward M.E., Aguado B., Mallya M., Mokrab Y., Huckle E.J.,
Beare D.M., Dunham I.;
"A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome.";
Genome Biol. 5:R84.1-R84.11(2004).
[5]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
PubMed=10591208; DOI=10.1038/990031;
Dunham I., Hunt A.R., Collins J.E., Bruskiewich R., Beare D.M.,
Clamp M., Smink L.J., Ainscough R., Almeida J.P., Babbage A.K.,
Bagguley C., Bailey J., Barlow K.F., Bates K.N., Beasley O.P.,
Bird C.P., Blakey S.E., Bridgeman A.M., Buck D., Burgess J.,
Burrill W.D., Burton J., Carder C., Carter N.P., Chen Y., Clark G.,
Clegg S.M., Cobley V.E., Cole C.G., Collier R.E., Connor R.,
Conroy D., Corby N.R., Coville G.J., Cox A.V., Davis J., Dawson E.,
Dhami P.D., Dockree C., Dodsworth S.J., Durbin R.M., Ellington A.G.,
Evans K.L., Fey J.M., Fleming K., French L., Garner A.A.,
Gilbert J.G.R., Goward M.E., Grafham D.V., Griffiths M.N.D., Hall C.,
Hall R.E., Hall-Tamlyn G., Heathcott R.W., Ho S., Holmes S.,
Hunt S.E., Jones M.C., Kershaw J., Kimberley A.M., King A.,
Laird G.K., Langford C.F., Leversha M.A., Lloyd C., Lloyd D.M.,
Martyn I.D., Mashreghi-Mohammadi M., Matthews L.H., Mccann O.T.,
Mcclay J., Mclaren S., McMurray A.A., Milne S.A., Mortimore B.J.,
Odell C.N., Pavitt R., Pearce A.V., Pearson D., Phillimore B.J.C.T.,
Phillips S.H., Plumb R.W., Ramsay H., Ramsey Y., Rogers L., Ross M.T.,
Scott C.E., Sehra H.K., Skuce C.D., Smalley S., Smith M.L.,
Soderlund C., Spragon L., Steward C.A., Sulston J.E., Swann R.M.,
Vaudin M., Wall M., Wallis J.M., Whiteley M.N., Willey D.L.,
Williams L., Williams S.A., Williamson H., Wilmer T.E., Wilming L.,
Wright C.L., Hubbard T., Bentley D.R., Beck S., Rogers J., Shimizu N.,
Minoshima S., Kawasaki K., Sasaki T., Asakawa S., Kudoh J.,
Shintani A., Shibuya K., Yoshizaki Y., Aoki N., Mitsuyama S.,
Roe B.A., Chen F., Chu L., Crabtree J., Deschamps S., Do A., Do T.,
Dorman A., Fang F., Fu Y., Hu P., Hua A., Kenton S., Lai H., Lao H.I.,
Lewis J., Lewis S., Lin S.-P., Loh P., Malaj E., Nguyen T., Pan H.,
Phan S., Qi S., Qian Y., Ray L., Ren Q., Shaull S., Sloan D., Song L.,
Wang Q., Wang Y., Wang Z., White J., Willingham D., Wu H., Yao Z.,
Zhan M., Zhang G., Chissoe S., Murray J., Miller N., Minx P.,
Fulton R., Johnson D., Bemis G., Bentley D., Bradshaw H., Bourne S.,
Cordes M., Du Z., Fulton L., Goela D., Graves T., Hawkins J.,
Hinds K., Kemp K., Latreille P., Layman D., Ozersky P., Rohlfing T.,
Scheet P., Walker C., Wamsley A., Wohldmann P., Pepin K., Nelson J.,
Korf I., Bedell J.A., Hillier L.W., Mardis E., Waterston R.,
Wilson R., Emanuel B.S., Shaikh T., Kurahashi H., Saitta S.,
Budarf M.L., McDermid H.E., Johnson A., Wong A.C.C., Morrow B.E.,
Edelmann L., Kim U.J., Shizuya H., Simon M.I., Dumanski J.P.,
Peyrard M., Kedra D., Seroussi E., Fransson I., Tapia I., Bruder C.E.,
O'Brien K.P., Wilkinson P., Bodenteich A., Hartman K., Hu X.,
Khan A.S., Lane L., Tilahun Y., Wright H.;
"The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22.";
Nature 402:489-495(1999).
[6]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
TISSUE=Pancreas;
PubMed=15489334; DOI=10.1101/gr.2596504;
The MGC Project Team;
"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA
project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).";
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004).
[7]
FUNCTION IN PHOSPHORYLATION OF ATF2; ELK1 AND MBP, AND ACTIVITY
REGULATION.
PubMed=9430721; DOI=10.1074/jbc.273.3.1741;
Enslen H., Raingeaud J., Davis R.J.;
"Selective activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase
isoforms by the MAP kinase kinases MKK3 and MKK6.";
J. Biol. Chem. 273:1741-1748(1998).
[8]
INTERACTION WITH SNTA1, ACTIVITY REGULATION, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL
PROPERTIES, AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY.
PubMed=10212242; DOI=10.1074/jbc.274.18.12626;
Hasegawa M., Cuenda A., Spillantini M.G., Thomas G.M.,
Buee-Scherrer V., Cohen P., Goedert M.;
"Stress-activated protein kinase-3 interacts with the PDZ domain of
alpha1-syntrophin. A mechanism for specific substrate recognition.";
J. Biol. Chem. 274:12626-12631(1999).
[9]
PHOSPHORYLATION BY MAP2K6/MKK6.
PubMed=11010976; DOI=10.1074/jbc.M007835200;
Alonso G., Ambrosino C., Jones M., Nebreda A.R.;
"Differential activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase
isoforms depending on signal strength.";
J. Biol. Chem. 275:40641-40648(2000).
[10]
FUNCTION IN REGULATION OF THE G2 CHECKPOINT.
PubMed=10848581; DOI=10.1128/MCB.20.13.4543-4552.2000;
Wang X., McGowan C.H., Zhao M., He L., Downey J.S., Fearns C.,
Wang Y., Huang S., Han J.;
"Involvement of the MKK6-p38gamma cascade in gamma-radiation-induced
cell cycle arrest.";
Mol. Cell. Biol. 20:4543-4552(2000).
[11]
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, AND TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
TISSUE=Heart;
PubMed=11991731; DOI=10.1006/jmcc.2001.1523;
Court N.W., dos Remedios C.G., Cordell J., Bogoyevitch M.A.;
"Cardiac expression and subcellular localization of the p38 mitogen-
activated protein kinase member, stress-activated protein kinase-3
(SAPK3).";
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 34:413-426(2002).
[12]
MUTAGENESIS, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, AND INTERACTION WITH SH3BP5.
PubMed=12167088; DOI=10.1042/BJ20020553;
Wiltshire C., Matsushita M., Tsukada S., Gillespie D.A., May G.H.;
"A new c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein, Sab
(SH3BP5), associates with mitochondria.";
Biochem. J. 367:577-585(2002).
[13]
FUNCTION.
PubMed=14592936; DOI=10.1152/ajpregu.00563.2003;
Ho R.C., Alcazar O., Fujii N., Hirshman M.F., Goodyear L.J.;
"p38gamma MAPK regulation of glucose transporter expression and
glucose uptake in L6 myotubes and mouse skeletal muscle.";
Am. J. Physiol. 286:R342-R349(2004).
[14]
MUTAGENESIS OF ASP-179 AND PHE-330.
PubMed=15284239; DOI=10.1074/jbc.M404595200;
Diskin R., Askari N., Capone R., Engelberg D., Livnah O.;
"Active mutants of the human p38alpha mitogen-activated protein
kinase.";
J. Biol. Chem. 279:47040-47049(2004).
[15]
FUNCTION, INDUCTION, PHOSPHORYLATION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, AND
UBIQUITINATION.
PubMed=17724032; DOI=10.1074/jbc.M703857200;
Qi X., Pohl N.M., Loesch M., Hou S., Li R., Qin J.Z., Cuenda A.,
Chen G.;
"p38alpha antagonizes p38gamma activity through c-Jun-dependent
ubiquitin-proteasome pathways in regulating Ras transformation and
stress response.";
J. Biol. Chem. 282:31398-31408(2007).
[16]
FUNCTION IN PHOSPHORYLATION OF DLG1.
PubMed=20605917; DOI=10.1242/jcs.066514;
Sabio G., Cerezo-Guisado M.I., Del Reino P., Inesta-Vaquera F.A.,
Rousseau S., Arthur J.S., Campbell D.G., Centeno F., Cuenda A.;
"p38gamma regulates interaction of nuclear PSF and RNA with the
tumour-suppressor hDlg in response to osmotic shock.";
J. Cell Sci. 123:2596-2604(2010).
[17]
IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
PubMed=21269460; DOI=10.1186/1752-0509-5-17;
Burkard T.R., Planyavsky M., Kaupe I., Breitwieser F.P.,
Buerckstuemmer T., Bennett K.L., Superti-Furga G., Colinge J.;
"Initial characterization of the human central proteome.";
BMC Syst. Biol. 5:17-17(2011).
[18]
FUNCTION.
PubMed=21172807; DOI=10.1242/jcs.068254;
Kukkonen-Macchi A., Sicora O., Kaczynska K., Oetken-Lindholm C.,
Pouwels J., Laine L., Kallio M.J.;
"Loss of p38gamma MAPK induces pleiotropic mitotic defects and massive
cell death.";
J. Cell Sci. 124:216-227(2011).
[19]
INVOLVEMENT IN CANCER.
PubMed=21532888; DOI=10.1593/neo.101748;
Meng F., Zhang H., Liu G., Kreike B., Chen W., Sethi S., Miller F.R.,
Wu G.;
"p38gamma mitogen-activated protein kinase contributes to oncogenic
properties maintenance and resistance to poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase-
1 inhibition in breast cancer.";
Neoplasia 13:472-482(2011).
[20]
REVIEW ON ACTIVITY REGULATION, AND REVIEW ON FUNCTION.
PubMed=20626350; DOI=10.1042/BJ20100323;
Cuadrado A., Nebreda A.R.;
"Mechanisms and functions of p38 MAPK signalling.";
Biochem. J. 429:403-417(2010).
[21]
PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT TYR-185, AND IDENTIFICATION
BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
TISSUE=Erythroleukemia;
PubMed=23186163; DOI=10.1021/pr300630k;
Zhou H., Di Palma S., Preisinger C., Peng M., Polat A.N., Heck A.J.,
Mohammed S.;
"Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell
phosphoproteome.";
J. Proteome Res. 12:260-271(2013).
[22]
X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.4 ANGSTROMS), COFACTOR, AND SUBUNIT.
PubMed=10508788; DOI=10.1016/S0969-2126(99)80173-7;
Bellon S., Fitzgibbon M.J., Fox T., Hsiao H.M., Wilson K.P.;
"The structure of phosphorylated p38gamma is monomeric and reveals a
conserved activation-loop conformation.";
Structure 7:1057-1065(1999).
[23]
VARIANTS [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] MET-103 AND ASN-230.
PubMed=17344846; DOI=10.1038/nature05610;
Greenman C., Stephens P., Smith R., Dalgliesh G.L., Hunter C.,
Bignell G., Davies H., Teague J., Butler A., Stevens C., Edkins S.,
O'Meara S., Vastrik I., Schmidt E.E., Avis T., Barthorpe S.,
Bhamra G., Buck G., Choudhury B., Clements J., Cole J., Dicks E.,
Forbes S., Gray K., Halliday K., Harrison R., Hills K., Hinton J.,
Jenkinson A., Jones D., Menzies A., Mironenko T., Perry J., Raine K.,
Richardson D., Shepherd R., Small A., Tofts C., Varian J., Webb T.,
West S., Widaa S., Yates A., Cahill D.P., Louis D.N., Goldstraw P.,
Nicholson A.G., Brasseur F., Looijenga L., Weber B.L., Chiew Y.-E.,
DeFazio A., Greaves M.F., Green A.R., Campbell P., Birney E.,
Easton D.F., Chenevix-Trench G., Tan M.-H., Khoo S.K., Teh B.T.,
Yuen S.T., Leung S.Y., Wooster R., Futreal P.A., Stratton M.R.;
"Patterns of somatic mutation in human cancer genomes.";
Nature 446:153-158(2007).
-!- FUNCTION: Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential
component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK12 is
one of the four p38 MAPKs which play an important role in the
cascades of cellular responses evoked by extracellular stimuli
such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress leading to
direct activation of transcription factors such as ELK1 and ATF2.
Accordingly, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate a broad range of proteins and
it has been estimated that they may have approximately 200 to 300
substrates each. Some of the targets are downstream kinases such
as MAPKAPK2, which are activated through phosphorylation and
further phosphorylate additional targets. Plays a role in myoblast
differentiation and also in the down-regulation of cyclin D1 in
response to hypoxia in adrenal cells suggesting MAPK12 may inhibit
cell proliferation while promoting differentiation. Phosphorylates
DLG1. Following osmotic shock, MAPK12 in the cell nucleus
increases its association with nuclear DLG1, thereby causing
dissociation of DLG1-SFPQ complexes. This function is independent
of its catalytic activity and could affect mRNA processing and/or
gene transcription to aid cell adaptation to osmolarity changes in
the environment. Regulates UV-induced checkpoint signaling and
repair of UV-induced DNA damage and G2 arrest after gamma-
radiation exposure. MAPK12 is involved in the regulation of SLC2A1
expression and basal glucose uptake in L6 myotubes; and negatively
regulates SLC2A4 expression and contraction-mediated glucose
uptake in adult skeletal muscle. C-Jun (JUN) phosphorylation is
stimulated by MAPK14 and inhibited by MAPK12, leading to a
distinct AP-1 regulation. MAPK12 is required for the normal
kinetochore localization of PLK1, prevents chromosomal instability
and supports mitotic cell viability. MAPK12-signaling is also
positively regulating the expansion of transient amplifying
myogenic precursor cells during muscle growth and regeneration.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:10848581, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14592936,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:17724032, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20605917,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:21172807, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8633070,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:9430721}.
-!- CATALYTIC ACTIVITY:
Reaction=ATP + L-seryl-[protein] = ADP + H(+) + O-phospho-L-seryl-
[protein]; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:17989, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9863, Rhea:RHEA-
COMP:11604, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:29999,
ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:83421, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216;
EC=2.7.11.24; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:10212242};
-!- CATALYTIC ACTIVITY:
Reaction=ATP + L-threonyl-[protein] = ADP + H(+) + O-phospho-L-
threonyl-[protein]; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:46608, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11060,
Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11605, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30013,
ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:61977, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216;
EC=2.7.11.24; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:10212242};
-!- COFACTOR:
Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:10508788};
Note=Binds 2 magnesium ions. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10508788};
-!- ACTIVITY REGULATION: Activated by phosphorylation on threonine and
tyrosine. MAP2K3/MKK3 and MAP2K6/MKK6 are both essential for the
activation of MAPK12 induced by environmental stress, whereas
MAP2K6/MKK6 is the major MAPK12 activator in response to TNF-
alpha. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10212242, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9430721}.
-!- BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES:
Kinetic parameters:
KM=37 uM for ATP {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10212242};
KM=313 uM for EGFR substrate peptide
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:10212242};
KM=254 uM for GST-ATF2 {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10212242};
-!- SUBUNIT: Monomer. Interacts with the PDZ domain of the syntrophin
SNTA1. Interacts with SH3BP5. Interacts with LIN7C, SCRIB and
SYNJ2BP (By similarity). {ECO:0000250}.
-!- INTERACTION:
Q12959:DLG1; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-602406, EBI-357481;
Q16512:PKN1; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-602406, EBI-602382;
P29074:PTPN4; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-602406, EBI-710431;
Q14160:SCRIB; NbExp=6; IntAct=EBI-602406, EBI-357345;
Q8IUQ4:SIAH1; NbExp=3; IntAct=EBI-602406, EBI-747107;
-!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Mitochondrion.
Note=Mitochondrial when associated with SH3BP5. In skeletal muscle
colocalizes with SNTA1 at the neuromuscular junction and
throughout the sarcolemma (By similarity). {ECO:0000250}.
-!- ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS:
Event=Alternative splicing; Named isoforms=2;
Name=1;
IsoId=P53778-1; Sequence=Displayed;
Name=2;
IsoId=P53778-2; Sequence=VSP_055224;
Note=No experimental confirmation available.;
-!- TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Highly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:11991731, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8633070}.
-!- INDUCTION: Expression of MAPK12 is down-regulation by MAPK14
activation. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17724032}.
-!- DOMAIN: The TXY motif contains the threonine and tyrosine residues
whose phosphorylation activates the MAP kinases.
-!- PTM: Dually phosphorylated on Thr-183 and Tyr-185 by MAP2K3/MKK3
and MAP2K6/MKK6, which activates the enzyme.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:11010976, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17724032}.
-!- PTM: Ubiquitinated. Ubiquitination leads to degradation by the
proteasome pathway. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17724032}.
-!- DISEASE: Note=MAPK is overexpressed in highly metastatic breast
cancer cell lines and its expression is preferentially associated
with basal-like and metastatic phenotypes of breast tumor samples.
-!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC
Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MAP kinase subfamily.
{ECO:0000305}.
-!- WEB RESOURCE: Name=Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology
and Haematology;
URL="http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/MAPK12ID41290ch22q13.html";
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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EMBL; X79483; CAA55984.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; Y10487; CAA71511.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; U66243; AAB40118.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; CR456515; CAG30401.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; AL022328; -; NOT_ANNOTATED_CDS; Genomic_DNA.
EMBL; BC015741; AAH15741.1; -; mRNA.
CCDS; CCDS14089.1; -. [P53778-1]
CCDS; CCDS77688.1; -. [P53778-2]
PIR; JC5252; JC5252.
PIR; JC6138; JC6138.
RefSeq; NP_001290181.1; NM_001303252.2. [P53778-2]
RefSeq; NP_002960.2; NM_002969.5. [P53778-1]
UniGene; Hs.432642; -.
PDB; 1CM8; X-ray; 2.40 A; A/B=1-367.
PDB; 4QUM; X-ray; 2.52 A; B=182-190.
PDBsum; 1CM8; -.
PDBsum; 4QUM; -.
ProteinModelPortal; P53778; -.
SMR; P53778; -.
BioGrid; 112207; 28.
CORUM; P53778; -.
DIP; DIP-34241N; -.
IntAct; P53778; 16.
MINT; P53778; -.
STRING; 9606.ENSP00000215659; -.
BindingDB; P53778; -.
ChEMBL; CHEMBL4674; -.
DrugBank; DB05403; CEP-1347.
DrugBank; DB05157; KC706.
DrugBank; DB04395; Phosphoaminophosphonic Acid-Adenylate Ester.
DrugBank; DB02482; Phosphonothreonine.
GuidetoPHARMACOLOGY; 1501; -.
iPTMnet; P53778; -.
PhosphoSitePlus; P53778; -.
BioMuta; MAPK12; -.
DMDM; 2851522; -.
EPD; P53778; -.
jPOST; P53778; -.
MaxQB; P53778; -.
PaxDb; P53778; -.
PeptideAtlas; P53778; -.
PRIDE; P53778; -.
ProteomicsDB; 56615; -.
DNASU; 6300; -.
Ensembl; ENST00000215659; ENSP00000215659; ENSG00000188130. [P53778-1]
Ensembl; ENST00000622558; ENSP00000479972; ENSG00000188130. [P53778-2]
GeneID; 6300; -.
KEGG; hsa:6300; -.
UCSC; uc003bkl.2; human. [P53778-1]
CTD; 6300; -.
DisGeNET; 6300; -.
EuPathDB; HostDB:ENSG00000188130.13; -.
GeneCards; MAPK12; -.
HGNC; HGNC:6874; MAPK12.
HPA; CAB025483; -.
HPA; HPA054562; -.
MIM; 602399; gene.
neXtProt; NX_P53778; -.
OpenTargets; ENSG00000188130; -.
PharmGKB; PA30619; -.
eggNOG; KOG0660; Eukaryota.
eggNOG; ENOG410XNY0; LUCA.
GeneTree; ENSGT00940000156189; -.
HOGENOM; HOG000233024; -.
HOVERGEN; HBG014652; -.
InParanoid; P53778; -.
KO; K04441; -.
OMA; TVCSAWD; -.
OrthoDB; 683132at2759; -.
PhylomeDB; P53778; -.
TreeFam; TF105100; -.
BRENDA; 2.7.11.24; 2681.
Reactome; R-HSA-168638; NOD1/2 Signaling Pathway.
Reactome; R-HSA-171007; p38MAPK events.
Reactome; R-HSA-2151209; Activation of PPARGC1A (PGC-1alpha) by phosphorylation.
Reactome; R-HSA-375170; CDO in myogenesis.
Reactome; R-HSA-376172; DSCAM interactions.
Reactome; R-HSA-4420097; VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway.
SignaLink; P53778; -.
SIGNOR; P53778; -.
EvolutionaryTrace; P53778; -.
GeneWiki; MAPK12; -.
GenomeRNAi; 6300; -.
PRO; PR:P53778; -.
Proteomes; UP000005640; Chromosome 22.
Bgee; ENSG00000188130; Expressed in 197 organ(s), highest expression level in gastrocnemius.
ExpressionAtlas; P53778; baseline and differential.
Genevisible; P53778; HS.
GO; GO:0005737; C:cytoplasm; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0005829; C:cytosol; TAS:Reactome.
GO; GO:0005739; C:mitochondrion; IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
GO; GO:0005654; C:nucleoplasm; TAS:Reactome.
GO; GO:0005634; C:nucleus; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0005524; F:ATP binding; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0000287; F:magnesium ion binding; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0004707; F:MAP kinase activity; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0004674; F:protein serine/threonine kinase activity; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0007050; P:cell cycle arrest; TAS:ProtInc.
GO; GO:0071310; P:cellular response to organic substance; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0006975; P:DNA damage induced protein phosphorylation; TAS:ProtInc.
GO; GO:0035556; P:intracellular signal transduction; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0007517; P:muscle organ development; TAS:ProtInc.
GO; GO:0045445; P:myoblast differentiation; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0018105; P:peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0051149; P:positive regulation of muscle cell differentiation; TAS:Reactome.
GO; GO:0010952; P:positive regulation of peptidase activity; NAS:ParkinsonsUK-UCL.
GO; GO:0010468; P:regulation of gene expression; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0007165; P:signal transduction; TAS:ProtInc.
CDD; cd07880; STKc_p38gamma; 1.
InterPro; IPR011009; Kinase-like_dom_sf.
InterPro; IPR003527; MAP_kinase_CS.
InterPro; IPR008352; MAPK_p38-like.
InterPro; IPR038786; p38gamma.
InterPro; IPR000719; Prot_kinase_dom.
InterPro; IPR017441; Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
Pfam; PF00069; Pkinase; 1.
PRINTS; PR01773; P38MAPKINASE.
SMART; SM00220; S_TKc; 1.
SUPFAM; SSF56112; SSF56112; 1.
PROSITE; PS01351; MAPK; 1.
PROSITE; PS00107; PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP; 1.
PROSITE; PS50011; PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM; 1.
1: Evidence at protein level;
3D-structure; Alternative splicing; ATP-binding; Cell cycle;
Complete proteome; Cytoplasm; Kinase; Magnesium; Metal-binding;
Mitochondrion; Nucleotide-binding; Nucleus; Phosphoprotein;
Polymorphism; Reference proteome; Serine/threonine-protein kinase;
Stress response; Transcription; Transcription regulation; Transferase;
Ubl conjugation.
CHAIN 1 367 Mitogen-activated protein kinase 12.
/FTId=PRO_0000186282.
DOMAIN 27 311 Protein kinase. {ECO:0000255|PROSITE-
ProRule:PRU00159}.
NP_BIND 33 41 ATP. {ECO:0000255|PROSITE-
ProRule:PRU00159}.
MOTIF 183 185 TXY.
ACT_SITE 153 153 Proton acceptor. {ECO:0000255|PROSITE-
ProRule:PRU00159}.
BINDING 56 56 ATP. {ECO:0000255|PROSITE-
ProRule:PRU00159}.
MOD_RES 183 183 Phosphothreonine; by MAP2K3 and MAP2K6.
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q63538}.
MOD_RES 185 185 Phosphotyrosine.
{ECO:0000244|PubMed:23186163}.
VAR_SEQ 142 151 Missing (in isoform 2).
{ECO:0000303|PubMed:15461802}.
/FTId=VSP_055224.
VARIANT 103 103 T -> M (in dbSNP:rs34422484).
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:15461802,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:17344846}.
/FTId=VAR_042265.
VARIANT 230 230 D -> N (in dbSNP:rs35396905).
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:17344846}.
/FTId=VAR_042266.
VARIANT 244 244 T -> M (in dbSNP:rs2066776).
/FTId=VAR_012002.
MUTAGEN 179 179 D->A: Emulation of the active state.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:15284239}.
MUTAGEN 185 185 Y->F: Loss of activity.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:8633070}.
MUTAGEN 330 330 F->S: No effect.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:15284239}.
CONFLICT 7 7 A -> T (in Ref. 1; CAA55984).
{ECO:0000305}.
CONFLICT 70 70 R -> L (in Ref. 1; CAA55984).
{ECO:0000305}.
CONFLICT 138 138 L -> M (in Ref. 1; CAA55984).
{ECO:0000305}.
CONFLICT 201 202 MR -> IA (in Ref. 1; CAA55984).
{ECO:0000305}.
CONFLICT 261 261 Y -> N (in Ref. 3; AAB40118).
{ECO:0000305}.
CONFLICT 297 298 EQ -> DI (in Ref. 1; CAA55984).
{ECO:0000305}.
CONFLICT 300 300 V -> L (in Ref. 1; CAA55984).
{ECO:0000305}.
CONFLICT 305 305 A -> F (in Ref. 1; CAA55984).
{ECO:0000305}.
CONFLICT 307 307 A -> S (in Ref. 1; CAA55984).
{ECO:0000305}.
CONFLICT 332 333 DV -> YF (in Ref. 1; CAA55984).
{ECO:0000305}.
STRAND 17 21 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
STRAND 24 32 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
STRAND 41 46 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
TURN 47 49 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
STRAND 52 57 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 65 80 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
STRAND 90 93 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
TURN 99 101 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
STRAND 106 110 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
STRAND 113 115 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 116 122 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 127 146 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 156 158 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
STRAND 159 161 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
STRAND 167 169 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 189 191 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 195 198 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
TURN 199 201 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 207 221 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 231 242 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 247 251 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 256 264 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 273 275 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 282 291 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
TURN 296 298 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 302 307 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 309 311 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
TURN 312 314 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
HELIX 337 349 {ECO:0000244|PDB:1CM8}.
SEQUENCE 367 AA; 41940 MW; EF680401D8E40610 CRC64;
MSSPPPARSG FYRQEVTKTA WEVRAVYRDL QPVGSGAYGA VCSAVDGRTG AKVAIKKLYR
PFQSELFAKR AYRELRLLKH MRHENVIGLL DVFTPDETLD DFTDFYLVMP FMGTDLGKLM
KHEKLGEDRI QFLVYQMLKG LRYIHAAGII HRDLKPGNLA VNEDCELKIL DFGLARQADS
EMTGYVVTRW YRAPEVILNW MRYTQTVDIW SVGCIMAEMI TGKTLFKGSD HLDQLKEIMK
VTGTPPAEFV QRLQSDEAKN YMKGLPELEK KDFASILTNA SPLAVNLLEK MLVLDAEQRV
TAGEALAHPY FESLHDTEDE PQVQKYDDSF DDVDRTLDEW KRVTYKEVLS FKPPRQLGAR
VSKETPL


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Kits Elisa; taq POLYMERASE

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Gentaur; yes we can

Pathways :
WP1493: Carbon assimilation C4 pathway
WP32: Translation Factors
WP1567: Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
WP1619: Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
WP1653: Galactose metabolism
WP1681: Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
WP1701: Starch and sucrose metabolism
WP1703: Streptomycin biosynthesis
WP1844: MAP kinase cascade
WP1946: Cori Cycle
WP2199: Seed Development
WP2292: Chemokine signaling pathway
WP2340: Thiamine (vitamin B1) biosynthesis and salvage
WP2341: vitamin B1 (thiamin) biosynthesis and salvage pathway
WP253: Glycolysis
WP1654: gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane degradation
WP1909: Signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family interactions
WP1049: G Protein Signaling Pathways
WP1165: G Protein Signaling Pathways
WP1371: G Protein Signaling Pathways
WP1438: Influenza A virus infection
WP1502: Mitochondrial biogenesis
WP1531: Vitamin D synthesis
WP1566: Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
WP1613: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene degradation

Related Genes :
[MAPK12 ERK6 SAPK3] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 12 (MAP kinase 12) (MAPK 12) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 6) (ERK-6) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 gamma) (MAP kinase p38 gamma) (Stress-activated protein kinase 3)
[Mapk12 Sapk3] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 12 (MAP kinase 12) (MAPK 12) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 6) (ERK-6) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 gamma) (MAP kinase p38 gamma) (Stress-activated protein kinase 3)
[Mapk12 Sapk3] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 12 (MAP kinase 12) (MAPK 12) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 6) (ERK-6) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 gamma) (MAP kinase p38 gamma) (Stress-activated protein kinase 3)
[MAPK14 CSBP CSBP1 CSBP2 CSPB1 MXI2 SAPK2A] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAP kinase 14) (MAPK 14) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drug-binding protein) (CSAID-binding protein) (CSBP) (MAP kinase MXI2) (MAX-interacting protein 2) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 alpha) (MAP kinase p38 alpha) (Stress-activated protein kinase 2a) (SAPK2a)
[MAPK11 PRKM11 SAPK2 SAPK2B] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 (MAP kinase 11) (MAPK 11) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 beta) (MAP kinase p38 beta) (p38b) (Stress-activated protein kinase 2b) (SAPK2b) (p38-2)
[Mapk14 Crk1 Csbp1 Csbp2] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAP kinase 14) (MAPK 14) (EC 2.7.11.24) (CRK1) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 alpha) (MAP kinase p38 alpha)
[MAPK13 PRKM13 SAPK4] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 (MAP kinase 13) (MAPK 13) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 delta) (MAP kinase p38 delta) (Stress-activated protein kinase 4)
[Mapk11 Prkm11] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 (MAP kinase 11) (MAPK 11) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 beta) (MAP kinase p38 beta) (p38B)
[Mapk13 Serk4] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 (MAP kinase 13) (MAPK 13) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 delta) (MAP kinase p38 delta) (Stress-activated protein kinase 4)
[MAPK14 CSBP1 CSBP2] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAP kinase 14) (MAPK 14) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 alpha) (MAP kinase p38 alpha)
[Mapk14 Csbp1 Csbp2] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAP kinase 14) (MAPK 14) (EC 2.7.11.24) (CRK1) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 alpha) (MAP kinase p38 alpha)
[Mapk13] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 (MAP kinase 13) (MAPK 13) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 delta) (MAP kinase p38 delta) (Stress-activated protein kinase 4)
[MAPK14 CSBP1] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAP kinase 14) (MAPK 14) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 alpha) (MAP kinase p38 alpha) (Stress-activated protein kinase 2a)
[mapk14a mapk14] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14A (MAP kinase 14A) (MAPK 14A) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38a) (MAP kinase p38a) (zp38a)
[mapk14b] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14B (MAP kinase 14B) (MAPK 14B) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38b) (MAP kinase p38b) (cp38b)
[mapk14a] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14A (MAP kinase 14A) (MAPK 14A) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38a) (MAP kinase p38a) (cp38a)
[p38b CG7393] Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38b (MAP kinase p38b) (MAPK p38b) (EC 2.7.11.24)
[mapk14b mapk14] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14B (MAP kinase 14B) (MAPK 14B) (EC 2.7.11.24) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38b) (MAP kinase p38b) (zp38b)
[pmk-1 B0218.3] Mitogen-activated protein kinase pmk-1 (EC 2.7.11.24) (Stress-activated protein kinase pmk-1) (p38 MAP kinase 1)
[pmk-3 F42G8.4] Mitogen-activated protein kinase pmk-3 (EC 2.7.11.24) (Stress-activated protein kinase pmk-3) (p38 MAP kinase 3)
[MAPK1 ERK2 PRKM1 PRKM2] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAP kinase 1) (MAPK 1) (EC 2.7.11.24) (ERT1) (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2) (ERK-2) (MAP kinase isoform p42) (p42-MAPK) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase 2) (MAP kinase 2) (MAPK 2)
[MAPKAPK5 PRAK] MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 5 (MAPK-activated protein kinase 5) (MAPKAP kinase 5) (MAPKAP-K5) (MAPKAPK-5) (MK-5) (MK5) (EC 2.7.11.1) (p38-regulated/activated protein kinase) (PRAK)
[MAP2K6 MEK6 MKK6 PRKMK6 SKK3] Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 (MAP kinase kinase 6) (MAPKK 6) (EC 2.7.12.2) (MAPK/ERK kinase 6) (MEK 6) (Stress-activated protein kinase kinase 3) (SAPK kinase 3) (SAPKK-3) (SAPKK3)
[MAPK3 ERK1 PRKM3] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAP kinase 3) (MAPK 3) (EC 2.7.11.24) (ERT2) (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1) (ERK-1) (Insulin-stimulated MAP2 kinase) (MAP kinase isoform p44) (p44-MAPK) (Microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase) (p44-ERK1)
[Mapk1 Erk2 Mapk Prkm1] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAP kinase 1) (MAPK 1) (EC 2.7.11.24) (ERT1) (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2) (ERK-2) (MAP kinase isoform p42) (p42-MAPK) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase 2) (MAP kinase 2) (MAPK 2)
[MAP3K5 ASK1 MAPKKK5 MEKK5] Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (EC 2.7.11.25) (Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1) (ASK-1) (MAPK/ERK kinase kinase 5) (MEK kinase 5) (MEKK 5)
[Mapk1 Erk2 Mapk Prkm1] Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAP kinase 1) (MAPK 1) (EC 2.7.11.24) (ERT1) (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2) (ERK-2) (MAP kinase isoform p42) (p42-MAPK) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase 2) (MAP kinase 2) (MAPK 2)
[Map3k5 Ask1 Mekk5] Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (EC 2.7.11.25) (Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1) (ASK-1) (MAPK/ERK kinase kinase 5) (MEK kinase 5) (MEKK 5)
[MAP4K2 GCK RAB8IP] Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 2 (EC 2.7.11.1) (B lymphocyte serine/threonine-protein kinase) (Germinal center kinase) (GC kinase) (MAPK/ERK kinase kinase kinase 2) (MEK kinase kinase 2) (MEKKK 2) (Rab8-interacting protein)
[MAP3K20 MLTK ZAK HCCS4] Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 20 (EC 2.7.11.25) (Human cervical cancer suppressor gene 4 protein) (HCCS-4) (Leucine zipper- and sterile alpha motif-containing kinase) (MLK-like mitogen-activated protein triple kinase) (Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase MLT) (Mixed lineage kinase-related kinase) (MLK-related kinase) (MRK) (Sterile alpha motif- and leucine zipper-containing kinase AZK)

Bibliography :