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Transforming growth factor beta-2 proprotein (Cetermin) (Glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor) (G-TSF) [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-beta-2)]

 TGFB2_HUMAN             Reviewed;         414 AA.
P61812; B4DKC5; P08112; Q15579; Q15581; Q4VAV9;
01-AUG-1988, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
01-AUG-1988, sequence version 1.
22-APR-2020, entry version 181.
RecName: Full=Transforming growth factor beta-2 proprotein;
AltName: Full=Cetermin;
AltName: Full=Glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor {ECO:0000303|PubMed:3322813};
Short=G-TSF {ECO:0000303|PubMed:3322813};
Contains:
RecName: Full=Latency-associated peptide;
Short=LAP;
Contains:
RecName: Full=Transforming growth factor beta-2;
Short=TGF-beta-2;
Flags: Precursor;
Name=TGFB2;
Homo sapiens (Human).
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia;
Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae;
Homo.
NCBI_TaxID=9606;
[1]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM A).
PubMed=3322813;
de Martin R., Haendler B., Hofer-Warbinek R., Gaugitsch H., Wrann M.,
Schluesener H., Seifert J.M., Bodmer S., Fontana A., Hofer E.;
"Complementary DNA for human glioblastoma-derived T cell suppressor factor,
a novel member of the transforming growth factor-beta gene family.";
EMBO J. 6:3673-3677(1987).
[2]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM B).
PubMed=3162414; DOI=10.1089/dna.1988.7.1;
Madisen L., Webb N.R., Rose T.M., Marquardt H., Ikeda T., Twardzik D.R.,
Seyedin S., Purchio A.F.;
"Transforming growth factor-beta 2: cDNA cloning and sequence analysis.";
DNA 7:1-8(1988).
[3]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORMS A AND B).
PubMed=2850146; DOI=10.1089/dna.1.1988.7.493;
Webb N.R., Madisen L., Rose T.M., Purchio A.F.;
"Structural and sequence analysis of TGF-beta 2 cDNA clones predicts two
different precursor proteins produced by alternative mRNA splicing.";
DNA 7:493-497(1988).
[4]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], AND VARIANTS HIS-91 AND LEU-207.
NIEHS SNPs program;
Submitted (OCT-2003) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases.
[5]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM B).
TISSUE=Thalamus;
PubMed=14702039; DOI=10.1038/ng1285;
Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R.,
Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H.,
Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.,
Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K.,
Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H.,
Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M.,
Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K.,
Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T.,
Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M.,
Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S.,
Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H.,
Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K.,
Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N.,
Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S.,
Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O.,
Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H.,
Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B.,
Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y.,
Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K.,
Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T.,
Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T.,
Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y.,
Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H.,
Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y.,
Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H.,
Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O.,
Isogai T., Sugano S.;
"Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human
cDNAs.";
Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004).
[6]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
Mural R.J., Istrail S., Sutton G.G., Florea L., Halpern A.L., Mobarry C.M.,
Lippert R., Walenz B., Shatkay H., Dew I., Miller J.R., Flanigan M.J.,
Edwards N.J., Bolanos R., Fasulo D., Halldorsson B.V., Hannenhalli S.,
Turner R., Yooseph S., Lu F., Nusskern D.R., Shue B.C., Zheng X.H.,
Zhong F., Delcher A.L., Huson D.H., Kravitz S.A., Mouchard L., Reinert K.,
Remington K.A., Clark A.G., Waterman M.S., Eichler E.E., Adams M.D.,
Hunkapiller M.W., Myers E.W., Venter J.C.;
Submitted (SEP-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases.
[7]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
PubMed=15489334; DOI=10.1101/gr.2596504;
The MGC Project Team;
"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project:
the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).";
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004).
[8]
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 1-115.
TISSUE=Lung;
PubMed=1764261; DOI=10.3109/08977199109043910;
Noma T., Glick A.B., Geiser A.G., O'Reilly M.A., Miller J., Roberts A.B.,
Sporn M.B.;
"Molecular cloning and structure of the human transforming growth factor-
beta 2 gene promoter.";
Growth Factors 4:247-255(1991).
[9]
PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 303-414.
PubMed=3476488;
Marquardt H., Lioubin M.N., Ikeda T.;
"Complete amino acid sequence of human transforming growth factor type beta
2.";
J. Biol. Chem. 262:12127-12131(1987).
[10]
CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION WITH HDAC9.
PubMed=12706107; DOI=10.1016/s0888-7543(03)00046-6;
David D., Cardoso J., Marques B., Marques R., Silva E.D., Santos H.,
Boavida M.G.;
"Molecular characterization of a familial translocation implicates
disruption of HDAC9 and possible position effect on TGFbeta2 in the
pathogenesis of Peters' anomaly.";
Genomics 81:489-503(2003).
[11]
INTERACTION WITH ASPN.
PubMed=17827158; DOI=10.1074/jbc.m700522200;
Nakajima M., Kizawa H., Saitoh M., Kou I., Miyazono K., Ikegawa S.;
"Mechanisms for asporin function and regulation in articular cartilage.";
J. Biol. Chem. 282:32185-32192(2007).
[12]
INTERACTION WITH LRRC32.
PubMed=19651619; DOI=10.1073/pnas.0901944106;
Tran D.Q., Andersson J., Wang R., Ramsey H., Unutmaz D., Shevach E.M.;
"GARP (LRRC32) is essential for the surface expression of latent TGF-beta
on platelets and activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells.";
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106:13445-13450(2009).
[13]
X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.1 ANGSTROMS) OF 303-414, DISULFIDE BOND, AND
SUBUNIT.
PubMed=1631557; DOI=10.1126/science.1631557;
Daopin S., Piez K.A., Ogawa Y., Davies D.R.;
"Crystal structure of transforming growth factor-beta 2: an unusual fold
for the superfamily.";
Science 257:369-373(1992).
[14]
X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.2 ANGSTROMS)OF 303-414, DISULFIDE BOND, AND
SUBUNIT.
PubMed=1641027; DOI=10.1038/358430a0;
Schlunegger M.P., Gruetter M.G.;
"An unusual feature revealed by the crystal structure at 2.2-A resolution
of human transforming growth factor-beta 2.";
Nature 358:430-434(1992).
[15]
VARIANT HIS-91.
PubMed=11528528; DOI=10.1038/sj.gene.6363780;
Alansari A., Hajeer A.H., Bayat A., Eyre S., Carthy D., Ollier W.E.;
"Two novel polymorphisms in the human transforming growth factor beta 2
gene.";
Genes Immun. 2:295-296(2001).
[16]
INVOLVEMENT IN LDS4, VARIANTS LDS4 102-GLU--SER-414 DEL AND
229-CYS--SER-414 DEL, AND FUNCTION.
PubMed=22772371; DOI=10.1038/ng.2348;
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Go Exome Sequencing Project;
Boileau C., Guo D.C., Hanna N., Regalado E.S., Detaint D., Gong L.,
Varret M., Prakash S.K., Li A.H., d'Indy H., Braverman A.C., Grandchamp B.,
Kwartler C.S., Gouya L., Santos-Cortez R.L., Abifadel M., Leal S.M.,
Muti C., Shendure J., Gross M.S., Rieder M.J., Vahanian A., Nickerson D.A.,
Michel J.B., Jondeau G., Milewicz D.M.;
"TGFB2 mutations cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections
associated with mild systemic features of Marfan syndrome.";
Nat. Genet. 44:916-921(2012).
[17]
VARIANTS LDS4 100-ALA--TYR-104 DEL; TRP-299; CYS-302 AND HIS-338, AND
FUNCTION.
PubMed=22772368; DOI=10.1038/ng.2349;
Lindsay M.E., Schepers D., Bolar N.A., Doyle J.J., Gallo E., Fert-Bober J.,
Kempers M.J., Fishman E.K., Chen Y., Myers L., Bjeda D., Oswald G.,
Elias A.F., Levy H.P., Anderlid B.M., Yang M.H., Bongers E.M.,
Timmermans J., Braverman A.C., Canham N., Mortier G.R., Brunner H.G.,
Byers P.H., Van Eyk J., Van Laer L., Dietz H.C., Loeys B.L.;
"Loss-of-function mutations in TGFB2 cause a syndromic presentation of
thoracic aortic aneurysm.";
Nat. Genet. 44:922-927(2012).
[18]
INVOLVEMENT IN NON-SYNDROMIC AORTIC DISEASE, AND VARIANT CYS-320.
PubMed=25046559; DOI=10.1016/j.cca.2014.07.016;
Gago-Diaz M., Blanco-Verea A., Teixido-Tura G., Valenzuela I.,
Del Campo M., Borregan M., Sobrino B., Amigo J., Garcia-Dorado D.,
Evangelista A., Carracedo A., Brion M.;
"Whole exome sequencing for the identification of a new mutation in TGFB2
involved in a familial case of non-syndromic aortic disease.";
Clin. Chim. Acta 437:88-92(2014).
-!- FUNCTION: Transforming growth factor beta-2 proprotein: Precursor of
the Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming growth factor
beta-2 (TGF-beta-2) chains, which constitute the regulatory and active
subunit of TGF-beta-2, respectively. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P01137,
ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P04202}.
-!- FUNCTION: [Latency-associated peptide]: Required to maintain the
Transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-beta-2) chain in a latent state
during storage in extracellular matrix (By similarity). Associates non-
covalently with TGF-beta-2 and regulates its activation via interaction
with 'milieu molecules', such as LTBP1 and LRRC32/GARP, that control
activation of TGF-beta-2 (By similarity).
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P01137, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P04202}.
-!- FUNCTION: Transforming growth factor beta-2: Multifunctional protein
that regulates various processes such as angiogenesis and heart
development (PubMed:22772371, PubMed:22772368). Activation into mature
form follows different steps: following cleavage of the proprotein in
the Golgi apparatus, Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming
growth factor beta-2 (TGF-beta-2) chains remain non-covalently linked
rendering TGF-beta-2 inactive during storage in extracellular matrix
(By similarity). At the same time, LAP chain interacts with 'milieu
molecules', such as LTBP1 and LRRC32/GARP, that control activation of
TGF-beta-2 and maintain it in a latent state during storage in
extracellular milieus (By similarity). Once activated following release
of LAP, TGF-beta-2 acts by binding to TGF-beta receptors (TGFBR1 and
TGFBR2), which transduce signal (By similarity).
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P01137, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P04202,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:22772368, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22772371}.
-!- SUBUNIT: Interacts with the serine proteases, HTRA1 and HTRA3 (By
similarity). Interacts with ASPN (PubMed:17827158). Interacts with
MFAP5 (By similarity). Latency-associated peptide: Interacts with
Transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-beta-2) chain; interaction is
non-covalent and maintains (TGF-beta-2) in a latent state (By
similarity). Latency-associated peptide: Interacts with LRRC32/GARP;
leading to regulate activation of TGF-beta-2 (PubMed:19651619).
Latency-associated peptide: Interacts with NREP; the interaction
results in a decrease in TGFB2 autoinduction (By similarity).
Transforming growth factor beta-2: Homodimer; disulfide-linked
(PubMed:1631557, PubMed:1641027). Transforming growth factor beta-2:
Interacts with TGF-beta receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), leading to
signal transduction (By similarity). {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P01137,
ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P27090, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1631557,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:1641027, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17827158,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:19651619}.
-!- INTERACTION:
P61812; P05067: APP; NbExp=7; IntAct=EBI-779581, EBI-77613;
-!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: [Latency-associated peptide]: Secreted,
extracellular space, extracellular matrix
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P01137}.
-!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: [Transforming growth factor beta-2]: Secreted
{ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P01137}.
-!- ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS:
Event=Alternative splicing; Named isoforms=2;
Name=A;
IsoId=P61812-1, P08112-1;
Sequence=Displayed;
Name=B;
IsoId=P61812-2, P08112-2;
Sequence=VSP_006417;
-!- PTM: Transforming growth factor beta-2 proprotein: The precursor
proprotein is cleaved in the Golgi apparatus to form Transforming
growth factor beta-2 (TGF-beta-2) and Latency-associated peptide (LAP)
chains, which remain non-covalently linked, rendering TGF-beta-2
inactive. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P01137}.
-!- DISEASE: Note=A chromosomal aberration involving TGFB2 is found in a
family with Peters anomaly. Translocation t(1;7)(q41;p21) with HDAC9.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:12706107}.
-!- DISEASE: Loeys-Dietz syndrome 4 (LDS4) [MIM:614816]: An aortic aneurysm
syndrome with widespread systemic involvement. LDS4 is characterized by
arterial tortuosity, aortic dissection, intracranial aneurysm and
subarachnoid hemorrhage, hypertelorism, bifid uvula, pectus deformity,
bicuspid aortic valve, arachnodactyly, scoliosis, foot deformities,
dural ectasia, joint hyperflexibility, and thin skin with easy bruising
and striae. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22772368, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22772371}.
Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented
in this entry.
-!- DISEASE: Note=Defects in TGFB2 may be a cause of non-syndromic aortic
disease (NSAD). NSAD is a frequently asymptomatic but potentially
lethal disease characterized by thoracic aortic aneurysms and
dissections without additional syndromic features.
{ECO:0000269|PubMed:25046559}.
-!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the TGF-beta family. {ECO:0000305}.
-!- CAUTION: In contrast to other members of the family, does not contain a
R-G-D cell attachment site motif that mediates binding to integrins and
promotes release of Latency-associated peptide (LAP) chain from TGF-
beta-2. {ECO:0000305}.
-!- WEB RESOURCE: Name=NIEHS-SNPs;
URL="http://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/tgfb2/";
-!- WEB RESOURCE: Name=Wikipedia; Note=TGF beta-2 entry;
URL="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TGF_beta_2";
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EMBL; Y00083; CAA68279.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; M19154; AAA50404.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; M19154; AAA50405.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; AY438979; AAR05442.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
EMBL; AK296504; BAG59137.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; CH471100; EAW93326.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
EMBL; BC096235; AAH96235.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; BC099635; AAH99635.1; -; mRNA.
EMBL; M87843; AAA61162.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
CCDS; CCDS1521.1; -.
CCDS; CCDS44318.1; -. [P61812-2]
PIR; A29478; B31249.
PIR; S06216; A31249.
RefSeq; NP_001129071.1; NM_001135599.3. [P61812-2]
RefSeq; NP_003229.1; NM_003238.4. [P61812-1]
PDB; 1TFG; X-ray; 1.95 A; A=303-414.
PDB; 2TGI; X-ray; 1.80 A; A=303-414.
PDB; 4KXZ; X-ray; 2.83 A; A/B/D/E=303-414.
PDB; 5TX4; X-ray; 1.88 A; B=303-414.
PDB; 5TY4; EM; 2.90 A; B=317-413.
PDB; 6I9J; X-ray; 2.00 A; A=303-414.
PDBsum; 1TFG; -.
PDBsum; 2TGI; -.
PDBsum; 4KXZ; -.
PDBsum; 5TX4; -.
PDBsum; 5TY4; -.
PDBsum; 6I9J; -.
SMR; P61812; -.
BioGrid; 112900; 10.
ComplexPortal; CPX-605; TGF-beta-2 complex.
ComplexPortal; CPX-834; TGF-beta-2-TGFR complex.
DIP; DIP-5936N; -.
IntAct; P61812; 2.
STRING; 9606.ENSP00000355896; -.
ChEMBL; CHEMBL3217393; -.
GlyConnect; 1836; -.
iPTMnet; P61812; -.
PhosphoSitePlus; P61812; -.
BioMuta; TGFB2; -.
DMDM; 48429157; -.
EPD; P61812; -.
jPOST; P61812; -.
MassIVE; P61812; -.
MaxQB; P61812; -.
PeptideAtlas; P61812; -.
PRIDE; P61812; -.
ProteomicsDB; 57335; -.
ProteomicsDB; 57336; -. [P61812-2]
ABCD; P61812; -.
Antibodypedia; 20732; 555 antibodies.
Ensembl; ENST00000366929; ENSP00000355896; ENSG00000092969. [P61812-2]
Ensembl; ENST00000366930; ENSP00000355897; ENSG00000092969. [P61812-1]
GeneID; 7042; -.
KEGG; hsa:7042; -.
UCSC; uc001hlm.4; human.
CTD; 7042; -.
DisGeNET; 7042; -.
GeneCards; TGFB2; -.
GeneReviews; TGFB2; -.
HGNC; HGNC:11768; TGFB2.
HPA; ENSG00000092969; Low tissue specificity.
MalaCards; TGFB2; -.
MIM; 190220; gene.
MIM; 614816; phenotype.
neXtProt; NX_P61812; -.
OpenTargets; ENSG00000092969; -.
Orphanet; 91387; Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection.
PharmGKB; PA36482; -.
GeneTree; ENSGT00940000157390; -.
HOGENOM; CLU_039840_0_0_1; -.
InParanoid; P61812; -.
KO; K13376; -.
OMA; NAIPPPF; -.
PhylomeDB; P61812; -.
TreeFam; TF318514; -.
Reactome; R-HSA-114608; Platelet degranulation.
Reactome; R-HSA-2129379; Molecules associated with elastic fibres.
Reactome; R-HSA-3000178; ECM proteoglycans.
SignaLink; P61812; -.
SIGNOR; P61812; -.
ChiTaRS; TGFB2; human.
EvolutionaryTrace; P61812; -.
GeneWiki; TGF_beta_2; -.
GenomeRNAi; 7042; -.
Pharos; P61812; Tbio.
PRO; PR:P61812; -.
Proteomes; UP000005640; Chromosome 1.
RNAct; P61812; protein.
Bgee; ENSG00000092969; Expressed in lung and 157 other tissues.
Genevisible; P61812; HS.
GO; GO:0030424; C:axon; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0062023; C:collagen-containing extracellular matrix; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0005576; C:extracellular region; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0005615; C:extracellular space; IDA:AgBase.
GO; GO:0043025; C:neuronal cell body; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0031093; C:platelet alpha granule lumen; TAS:Reactome.
GO; GO:0001540; F:amyloid-beta binding; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0005125; F:cytokine activity; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0008083; F:growth factor activity; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0042803; F:protein homodimerization activity; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0005102; F:signaling receptor binding; IMP:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0005160; F:transforming growth factor beta receptor binding; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0005114; F:type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0034714; F:type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding; IMP:AgBase.
GO; GO:0032147; P:activation of protein kinase activity; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0035910; P:ascending aorta morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0060413; P:atrial septum morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0003289; P:atrial septum primum morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0003181; P:atrioventricular valve morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0030509; P:BMP signaling pathway; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0060317; P:cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0060038; P:cardiac muscle cell proliferation; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0003215; P:cardiac right ventricle morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0010002; P:cardioblast differentiation; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0007050; P:cell cycle arrest; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0008219; P:cell death; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0016477; P:cell migration; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0000902; P:cell morphogenesis; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0045216; P:cell-cell junction organization; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0030199; P:collagen fibril organization; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:1904888; P:cranial skeletal system development; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0042416; P:dopamine biosynthetic process; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0009792; P:embryo development ending in birth or egg hatching; TAS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0048566; P:embryonic digestive tract development; IEP:DFLAT.
GO; GO:0030326; P:embryonic limb morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0003274; P:endocardial cushion fusion; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0003203; P:endocardial cushion morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0001837; P:epithelial to mesenchymal transition; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0097191; P:extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0001654; P:eye development; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0048699; P:generation of neurons; TAS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0008347; P:glial cell migration; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0001942; P:hair follicle development; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0031069; P:hair follicle morphogenesis; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0007507; P:heart development; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0003007; P:heart morphogenesis; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0003179; P:heart valve morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0030097; P:hemopoiesis; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0048839; P:inner ear development; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0001822; P:kidney development; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0008584; P:male gonad development; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0003149; P:membranous septum morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0010693; P:negative regulation of alkaline phosphatase activity; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0016525; P:negative regulation of angiogenesis; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0030308; P:negative regulation of cell growth; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0008285; P:negative regulation of cell population proliferation; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0050680; P:negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:1905006; P:negative regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0010629; P:negative regulation of gene expression; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0010936; P:negative regulation of macrophage cytokine production; IDA:DFLAT.
GO; GO:0046580; P:negative regulation of Ras protein signal transduction; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0003407; P:neural retina development; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0001843; P:neural tube closure; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0048666; P:neuron development; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0030593; P:neutrophil chemotaxis; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0042476; P:odontogenesis; NAS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0003148; P:outflow tract septum morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0060389; P:pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0061626; P:pharyngeal arch artery morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0002576; P:platelet degranulation; TAS:Reactome.
GO; GO:0051891; P:positive regulation of cardioblast differentiation; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0033630; P:positive regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0045787; P:positive regulation of cell cycle; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0051781; P:positive regulation of cell division; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO; GO:0030307; P:positive regulation of cell growth; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0008284; P:positive regulation of cell population proliferation; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0010634; P:positive regulation of epithelial cell migration; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0010718; P:positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:1905007; P:positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0045823; P:positive regulation of heart contraction; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0050778; P:positive regulation of immune response; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0045726; P:positive regulation of integrin biosynthetic process; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0043525; P:positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0045747; P:positive regulation of Notch signaling pathway; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0045778; P:positive regulation of ossification; IEP:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0010862; P:positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0014068; P:positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:1902895; P:positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0050714; P:positive regulation of protein secretion; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0032874; P:positive regulation of stress-activated MAPK cascade; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0051795; P:positive regulation of timing of catagen; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0006468; P:protein phosphorylation; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0003184; P:pulmonary valve morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:1902256; P:regulation of apoptotic process involved in outflow tract morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0042127; P:regulation of cell population proliferation; IBA:GO_Central.
GO; GO:0051794; P:regulation of timing of catagen; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0032909; P:regulation of transforming growth factor beta2 production; IMP:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0042493; P:response to drug; IDA:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:0001666; P:response to hypoxia; IMP:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0032570; P:response to progesterone; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0009611; P:response to wounding; IEP:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0007435; P:salivary gland morphogenesis; IEP:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0062009; P:secondary palate development; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0001501; P:skeletal system development; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0060395; P:SMAD protein signal transduction; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0048103; P:somatic stem cell division; ISS:UniProtKB.
GO; GO:1903701; P:substantia propria of cornea development; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0007179; P:transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway; IDA:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0042704; P:uterine wall breakdown; TAS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0060065; P:uterus development; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0060412; P:ventricular septum morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0003222; P:ventricular trabecula myocardium morphogenesis; ISS:BHF-UCL.
GO; GO:0042060; P:wound healing; ISS:UniProtKB.
Gene3D; 2.10.90.10; -; 1.
InterPro; IPR029034; Cystine-knot_cytokine.
InterPro; IPR001839; TGF-b_C.
InterPro; IPR001111; TGF-b_propeptide.
InterPro; IPR016319; TGF-beta.
InterPro; IPR015615; TGF-beta-rel.
InterPro; IPR003940; TGFb2.
InterPro; IPR017948; TGFb_CS.
PANTHER; PTHR11848; PTHR11848; 1.
Pfam; PF00019; TGF_beta; 1.
Pfam; PF00688; TGFb_propeptide; 1.
PIRSF; PIRSF001787; TGF-beta; 1.
PRINTS; PR01423; TGFBETA.
PRINTS; PR01425; TGFBETA2.
SMART; SM00204; TGFB; 1.
SUPFAM; SSF57501; SSF57501; 1.
PROSITE; PS00250; TGF_BETA_1; 1.
PROSITE; PS51362; TGF_BETA_2; 1.
1: Evidence at protein level;
3D-structure; Alternative splicing; Aortic aneurysm;
Chromosomal rearrangement; Cleavage on pair of basic residues;
Direct protein sequencing; Disease mutation; Disulfide bond;
Extracellular matrix; Glycoprotein; Growth factor; Mitogen; Polymorphism;
Reference proteome; Secreted; Signal.
SIGNAL 1..20
/evidence="ECO:0000255"
CHAIN 21..302
/note="Latency-associated peptide"
/evidence="ECO:0000305|PubMed:3476488"
/id="PRO_0000033784"
CHAIN 303..414
/note="Transforming growth factor beta-2"
/evidence="ECO:0000305|PubMed:3476488"
/id="PRO_0000033785"
CARBOHYD 72
/note="N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagine"
/evidence="ECO:0000255"
CARBOHYD 140
/note="N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagine"
/evidence="ECO:0000255"
CARBOHYD 241
/note="N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagine"
/evidence="ECO:0000255"
DISULFID 309..318
/evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:1631557,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:1641027"
DISULFID 317..380
/evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:1631557,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:1641027"
DISULFID 346..411
/evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:1631557,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:1641027"
DISULFID 350..413
/evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:1631557,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:1641027"
DISULFID 379
/note="Interchain"
/evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:1631557,
ECO:0000269|PubMed:1641027"
VAR_SEQ 116
/note="N -> TVCPVVTTPSGSVGSLCSRQSQVLCGYLD (in isoform B)"
/evidence="ECO:0000303|PubMed:14702039,
ECO:0000303|PubMed:2850146, ECO:0000303|PubMed:3162414"
/id="VSP_006417"
VARIANT 91
/note="R -> H (in dbSNP:rs10482721)"
/evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:11528528, ECO:0000269|Ref.4"
/id="VAR_012708"
VARIANT 100..104
/note="Missing (in LDS4)"
/evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:22772368"
/id="VAR_068931"
VARIANT 102..414
/note="Missing (in LDS4)"
/evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:22772371"
/id="VAR_080342"
VARIANT 207
/note="V -> L (in dbSNP:rs10482810)"
/evidence="ECO:0000269|Ref.4"
/id="VAR_018923"
VARIANT 229..414
/note="Missing (in LDS4)"
/evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:22772371"
/id="VAR_080343"
VARIANT 299
/note="R -> W (in LDS4; dbSNP:rs863223792)"
/evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:22772368"
/id="VAR_068932"
VARIANT 302
/note="R -> C (in LDS4; dbSNP:rs869312903)"
/evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:22772368"
/id="VAR_068933"
VARIANT 320
/note="R -> C (probable disease-associated mutation found
in a family with non-syndromic aortic disease;
dbSNP:rs1553303352)"
/evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:25046559"
/id="VAR_072740"
VARIANT 338
/note="P -> H (in LDS4; dbSNP:rs387907278)"
/evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:22772368"
/id="VAR_068934"
CONFLICT 32
/note="F -> L (in Ref. 8; AAA61162)"
/evidence="ECO:0000305"
CONFLICT 116
/note="Missing (in Ref. 3; AAA50405)"
/evidence="ECO:0000305"
HELIX 306..309
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
STRAND 315..320
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
STRAND 323..325
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
HELIX 326..330
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
STRAND 335..337
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
STRAND 339..342
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
STRAND 345..347
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
STRAND 354..356
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
HELIX 359..370
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
HELIX 372..374
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
STRAND 379..382
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
STRAND 384..394
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
STRAND 397..408
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
STRAND 411..414
/evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2TGI"
SEQUENCE 414 AA; 47748 MW; 7D9D569E0F4A07D0 CRC64;
MHYCVLSAFL ILHLVTVALS LSTCSTLDMD QFMRKRIEAI RGQILSKLKL TSPPEDYPEP
EEVPPEVISI YNSTRDLLQE KASRRAAACE RERSDEEYYA KEVYKIDMPP FFPSENAIPP
TFYRPYFRIV RFDVSAMEKN ASNLVKAEFR VFRLQNPKAR VPEQRIELYQ ILKSKDLTSP
TQRYIDSKVV KTRAEGEWLS FDVTDAVHEW LHHKDRNLGF KISLHCPCCT FVPSNNYIIP
NKSEELEARF AGIDGTSTYT SGDQKTIKST RKKNSGKTPH LLLMLLPSYR LESQQTNRRK
KRALDAAYCF RNVQDNCCLR PLYIDFKRDL GWKWIHEPKG YNANFCAGAC PYLWSSDTQH
SRVLSLYNTI NPEASASPCC VSQDLEPLTI LYYIGKTPKI EQLSNMIVKS CKCS


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Related Genes :
[TGFB2] Transforming growth factor beta-2 proprotein (Cetermin) (Glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor) (G-TSF) [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-beta-2)]
[TGFB2] Transforming growth factor beta-2 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-beta-2)]
[TGFB1 TGFB] Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)]
[Tgfb1] Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)]
[Tgfb1] Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)]
[TGFB1] Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)]
[TGFB1] Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)]
[TGFB3] Transforming growth factor beta-3 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-beta-3)]
[TGFB1] Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)]
[TGFB1] Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)]
[TGFB1] Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)]
[TGFB1] Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)]
[TGFB1] Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)]
[TGFB1] Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)]
[TGFB1] Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)]
[TGFBR1 ALK5 SKR4] TGF-beta receptor type-1 (TGFR-1) (EC 2.7.11.30) (Activin A receptor type II-like protein kinase of 53kD) (Activin receptor-like kinase 5) (ALK-5) (ALK5) (Serine/threonine-protein kinase receptor R4) (SKR4) (TGF-beta type I receptor) (Transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I) (TGF-beta receptor type I) (TbetaR-I)
[TGFBR2] TGF-beta receptor type-2 (TGFR-2) (EC 2.7.11.30) (TGF-beta type II receptor) (Transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II) (TGF-beta receptor type II) (TbetaR-II)
[MAP3K7 TAK1] Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (EC 2.7.11.25) (Transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1) (TGF-beta-activated kinase 1)
[Tgfbr3] Transforming growth factor beta receptor type 3 (TGF-beta receptor type 3) (TGFR-3) (Betaglycan) (Transforming growth factor beta receptor III) (TGF-beta receptor type III)
[Tgfbr1] TGF-beta receptor type-1 (TGFR-1) (EC 2.7.11.30) (Serine/threonine-protein kinase receptor R4) (SKR4) (TGF-beta type I receptor) (Transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I) (TGF-beta receptor type I) (TbetaR-I)
[LEFTY2 EBAF LEFTA LEFTYA TGFB4 PSEC0024] Left-right determination factor 2 (Endometrial bleeding-associated factor) (Left-right determination factor A) (Protein lefty-2) (Protein lefty-A) (Transforming growth factor beta-4) (TGF-beta-4)
[TGFBR1] TGF-beta receptor type-1 (TGFR-1) (EC 2.7.11.30) (TGF-beta type I receptor) (Transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I) (TGF-beta receptor type I) (TbetaR-I)
[Tgfbr1] TGF-beta receptor type-1 (TGFR-1) (EC 2.7.11.30) (ESK2) (Transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I) (TGF-beta receptor type I) (TbetaR-I)
[TGFBR1] TGF-beta receptor type-1 (TGFR-1) (EC 2.7.11.30) (TGF-beta type I receptor) (Transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I) (TGF-beta receptor type I) (TbetaR-I)
[Nrros Lrrc33] Transforming growth factor beta activator LRRC33 (Leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 33) (Negative regulator of reactive oxygen species)
[Map3k7 Tak1] Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (EC 2.7.11.25) (Transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1) (TGF-beta-activated kinase 1)
[Lefty1 Ebaf Lefty Stra3 Tgfb4] Left-right determination factor 1 (Protein lefty-1) (Lefty protein) (Stimulated by retinoic acid gene 3 protein) (Transforming growth factor beta-4) (TGF-beta-4)
[LTBP4] Latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 4 (LTBP-4)
[KLF11 FKLF TIEG2] Krueppel-like factor 11 (Transforming growth factor-beta-inducible early growth response protein 2) (TGFB-inducible early growth response protein 2) (TIEG-2)
[LTBP2 C14orf141 LTBP3] Latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 2 (LTBP-2)

Bibliography :
[17516499] The structure of the TGF-beta latency associated peptide region determines the ability of the proprotein convertase furin to cleave TGF-betas.