Product name : Human, Proguanylin , Rec. Prot.
Catalog number : RD172046100
Quantity: 0.1 mg
Supplier name : Biovend
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Heat-stable enterotoxins (STa) are small, cysteine-rich peptides secreted by Escherichia coli that are able to induce diarrhea through the stimulation of an intestine-specific receptor-guanylyl cyclase known as STaR. The binding of STa to STaR induces a dramatic increase in the cGMP content of the cell. This, on the other hand, inhibits salt absorption and stimulates chloride secretion. The imbalance of ions is accompanied by a massive accumulation of water in the gut, which gives rise to the diarrhea and dehydration characteristic of the enterotoxin activity. The detection of a receptor for STa on intestinal brush border membranes indicates the existence of an endogenous activator , as a potential ligand for the STaR. This activator is guanylin, a 15-amino acid peptide purified from rat small intestine. This peptide shares sequence similarity with STa. The molecular cloning of the human and mouse cDNAs encoding guanylin was reported. The sequences demonstrated that guanylin is present at the C-terminal end of a larger precursor protein. Expression in mammalian cells indicated that the 94-amino acid proguanylin is inactive. The biologically active guanylin can be released by either chemical or enzymatic treatment of proguanylin. By Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization, showed that expression of guanylin mRNA is restricted to cells of the intestinal epithelium, specifically the Paneth cells at the base of the small intestinal crypts. These results demonstrate that guanylin is an endogenous activator of STaR isolated a cDNA encoding an apparent precursor of guanylin from a human intestinal cDNA library. The mRNA was expressed at high levels in human ileum and colon. In the mouse, interspecific backcross analysis used to map the Guca2 gene to the distal half of mouse chromosome 4 in a region of homology with human chromosome 1p. By fluorescence in situ hybridization mapped the GUCA2 gene to human 1p35-p34
Guanylin is thought to modulate intestinal water/electrolyte transport in a paracrine mode reported the nucleotide sequence of the gene, the characteristics of its circulating molecular form, and its localization in enterochromaffin cells of the gut. The gene, approximately 2.6 kb in size, consists of 3 exons interrupted by 2 introns. The hormonal form of guanylin is a 94-amino acid peptide with a molecular mass of 10.3 kDa. Guanylin is synthesized by gut enterochromaffin cells as a prohormone of 115 amino acids and is processed to the molecular form of 94 amino acids circulating in the blood.
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