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Pubmed ID: 31494992
Publication Date: 2019/09/30

Activation through toll-like receptor 2 on group 2 innate lymphoid cells can induce asthmatic characteristics.

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are one of the sources of IL-5 and IL-13 in allergic airway inflammation. Innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed on epithelial cells could contribute to ILC2 activation through IL-33 production, but a direct effect of TLRs on ILC2s remains to be elucidated.

We hypothesized that TLRs can directly activate lung ILC2s and participate in the pathogenesis of asthma.

After intranasal administration of IL-33 to wild-type (WT), TLR2KO and TLR4KO female mice, ILC2s were isolated from harvested lungs. ILC2s were incubated with IL-2 and TLR stimulants (pam3csk4 (PAM), house dust mite extract (HDM)). In some experiments, TLR2 or dectin-1 signalling inhibitors were used. As an in vivo model, the mice were treated with IL-33 and rested until lung recruitment of eosinophils regressed. Then they were treated intranasally with PAM + HDM or vehicle and analysed.

In vitro stimulation of isolated ILC2s showed that PAM could induce IL-13 and IL-5 production, and HDM had a synergistic effect on this stimulation. Both effects were dependent on TLR2 and NF-κB signalling. PAM + HDM stimulation of WT mice led to increased ILC2s, airway hyperresponsiveness and increased levels of both neutrophils and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These observations were dependent on TLR2.

TLR2 can directly activate lung ILC2s, an effect that is augmented by HDM. Asthmatic characteristics mediated through the TLR2 pathway were evident in the in vivo mice model. These data implicate a new pathway of ILC2 activation in the pathogenesis of asthma.
Authors: Ishii Takashi , Muroi Masashi , Horiguchi Kazuhide , Tanamoto Ken-Ichi , Nagase Takahide , Yamashita Naomi ,


  1. [Last access 2019/09/30].

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