Pubmed ID: 33931042
Publication Date: 2021/04/30
Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the regulatory mechanism of the gibberellic acid pathway of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) dwarf mutants.
Tartary buckwheat is an important minor crop species with high nutritional and medicinal value and is widely planted worldwide. Cultivated Tartary buckwheat plants are tall and have hollow stems that lodge easily, which severely affects their yield and hinders the development of the Tartary buckwheat industry.
Heifeng No. 1 seeds were treated with ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) to generate a mutant library. The dwarf mutant ftdm was selected from the mutagenized population, and the agronomic characteristics giving rise to the dwarf phenotype were evaluated. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-ESI-MS/MS) was performed to determine the factors underlying the different phenotypes between the wild-type (WT) and ftdm plants. In addition, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed via the HiSeq 2000 platform, and the resulting transcriptomic data were analysed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant analysis revealed possible sites associated with dwarfism. The expression levels of the potential DEGs between the WT and ftdm mutant were then measured via qRT-PCR and fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads (FPKM).
The plant height (PH) of the ftdm mutant decreased to 42% of that of the WT, and compared with the WT, the mutant and had a higher breaking force (BF) and lower lodging index (LI). Lower GA4 and GA7 contents and higher contents of jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and brassinolactone (BR) were detected in the stems of the ftdm mutant compared with the WT. Exogenous application of GAs could not revert the dwarfism of the ftdm mutant. On the basis of the transcriptomic analysis, 146 homozygous SNP loci were identified. In total, 12 DEGs with nonsynonymous mutations were ultimately identified, which were considered potential candidate genes related to the dwarf trait. When the sequences of eight genes whose expression was downregulated and four genes whose expression was upregulated were compared, SKIP14, an F-box protein whose sequence is 85% homologous to that of SLY1 in Arabidopsis, presented an amino acid change (from Ser to Asn) and was expressed at a lower level in the stems of the ftdm mutant compared with the WT. Hence, we speculated that this amino acid change in SKIP14 resulted in a disruption in GA signal transduction, indirectly decreasing the GA content and downregulating the expression of genes involved in GA biosynthesis or the GA response. Further studies are needed to determine the molecular basis underlying the dwarf phenotype of the ftdm mutant.
We report a Tartary buckwheat EMS dwarf mutant, ftdm, suitable for high-density planting and commercial farming. A significant decrease in GA4 and GA7 levels was detected in the ftdm mutant, and 12 DEGs expressed in the stems of the ftdm mutant were selected as candidates of the dwarfing gene. One nonsynonymous mutation was detected in the SKIP14 gene in the ftdm mutant, and this gene had a lower transcript level compared with that in the WT.
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